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Hand and Power Tools unit 11. Amber Henderson. Objectives. 1.) Identify the key terms for the unit. 2.) Identify common hand and power tools used in agricultural mechanics. 3.) Select hand tools needed for a particular job. 4.) Determine the cost of acquiring each tool. terms.

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Hand and power tools unit 11

Hand and Power Toolsunit 11

Amber Henderson


  • 1.) Identify the key terms for the unit.

  • 2.) Identify common hand and power tools used in agricultural mechanics.

  • 3.) Select hand tools needed for a particular job.

  • 4.) Determine the cost of acquiring each tool.


  • Blade Balance- a device used to balance a lawn mower blade to prevent excess vibration during operation.

  • Board Foot- Circular Saw- a motor- driven power hand saw with round blade.

  • Circular Saw- a motor- driven power hand saw with round blade.

  • Common Nail- A kind of nail with a flat head that is used in general construction.

  • Concave Bevel- a bevel, which is hollowed or curved inward.

  • Convex Bevel- A bevel which is raised or curved outward

  • Crosscut- to cut across the grain of wood

  • Crosscut Hand Saw- A saw with small teeth (more teeth per inch) for cutting across the grain of wood.

  • Dado- A square or rectangular groove in the face of the board


  • Double Inclined Plane- A plane made by two bevels creating a point similar to that of an axe

  • Finishing Nail- A slender nail with a small head used for interior trim work

  • High Speed Drill- Twist drill made tempered specially to drill holes in steel

  • Hollow Ground- A single inclined plane which is concave ground

  • Hone- the process of finely sharpening a cutting edge with a bench stone or hand stone

  • Kerf- Opening in board made by the cutting of a saw blade; also referred to as saw kerf

  • Kickback- A safety hazard that results when a saw blade binds in the material being cut resulting in uncontrollable throwing of the material or saw

  • Rabbet- A cut or groove at the end of a board made to receive another board and form a joint

  • Terms2

    • Rip- To cut along the grain of wood

    • Rip Hand Saw- A saw with larger teeth (fewer teeth per inch) for cutting with the grain of wood

    • Revolutions Per Minute (RPM)- the number of times a rotating shaft or blade turns or rotates in sixty (60) seconds

    • Single Incline Plane- A type of bevel with one edge; used on wood chisels and plane irons

    • Twist Drill- Common drill bit used for making round holes in wood and metal

    Hammers 5 60
    Hammers ($5-$60)

    • Carpenter Hammer

      • Used to drive or pull nails

      • Can have either a curved or straight claw


    • Machinist Hammer

      • Used to work with metal or around machinery

      • Distiguished by a variable- shaped peen

      • Ball peen hammers are made in different weights usually 4,6,8, and 12 ounces and 1, 1 ½, and 2 pounds.

    Wrenches 20 300
    Wrenches ($20-$300)

    • Open-end

    • Solid, adjustable wrench with openings in one or both ends

    • Usually come in sets ranging for 5/16’’ to 1 inch.

    • Handles are usually straight but may be curved.


    • Box Wrench

    • Less likely to slip off the work.

    • Most likely to have 12 points

      • 6-8 points used for heavy

      • 12 points used for medium

      • 16 points used for light duty

  • Disadvantage of this wrench is loss of time

  • Wrench

    • Combination Wrench

    • Has both an open- end and a box end.


    • Adjustable open-end wrench

    • An open- end wrench with an adjustable opening.

    • Can fit variety of different sized nuts and bolts


    • Pipe Wrench

    • An adjustable wrench with curved jaws used to grip pipe or round stock.

    • Come in variety of different sizes.


    • Socket Wrench

    • Cylindrical wrench attached to a breaker bar, ratchet, or air wrench.

    • Offers secure fast and speedy operation.

    • Sized by the millimeter or by inches and fractions of an inch

    • Sets come in different sizes based on the size of the driver.

      • Common sizes: ¼”, ½”, ¾”, and 1”.

    Screwdriver 5 20
    Screwdriver ($5- $20)

    • Philips Screwdriver

      • Named after Henry F. Phillips

      • Used with the most popular screw, which is referred to as a Philips screw.


    • Ratchet off-set screwdriver

      • Manual screwdriver that has a ratcheting action.


    • Standard screwdriver

      • Also known as a “flat head”

      • Has a single blade

    Rulers tapes 10 30
    Rulers/ tapes ($10-$30)

    • Measure in Inches or Centimeters

    • Used for wood work or metal work

    Squares 10 30
    Squares ($10-$30)

    Carpenter’s Square

    • Usually 12 in X 8 in, 24 in X 16 in, or 24 inX 18 in.

    • Flat sides of the blade and the tonged are graduated in inches and fractions of an inch

    • Used for laying out and squaring up large patterns


    Try Square

    • Consists of two parts at the right angles to each other


    Sliding T Bevel

    • Adjustable with a slotted beveled blade

    • Primary use is laying out angles other than right angles


    Combination Square

    • Is equipped with moveable heads called square head, protractor head, and center head.

    Hand saw 10 20
    Hand saw ($10-$20)

    Cross cut

    • This saw has a steel blade with a handle at one end

    • The blade is narrower at the end opposite the handle

    • The major difference between ripsaw and crosscut is the shape of the teeth.

      Back saw

    • Is a crosscut saw designed for sawing a perfectly straight line

      Key hold saw

    • Has a long narrow, tapering ripsaw, used to cut from the bored hold

    Chisels 10 20
    Chisels ($10-$20)

    Cold chisels

    • Tools that can be used for chipping or cutting metal or wood

    • They only cut metal that is softer than the metal they are made of

    • Classified according to the shape of their heads and the width of the cutting edge

    • Match hammer to the chisel


    Wood Chisels

    • Used with wood working jobs

    Files 5 20
    Files ($5- $20)

    • Files are graded according to their degree of fineness and whether they have single or double- cut teeth.

    • Files remove small amount of metal, plastic, or wood.

    • Used for tooth sharpening

    • Files come in different shapes

    Pliers 14 30
    Pliers ($14-$30)

    • Made in many styles and sizes

    • Used for cutting purposes as well as holding and gripping small articles.

    • Major types:

      • Slip- joint

      • Vice grip

      • Water pump

      • Slide cutter

      • Diagonal pliers

      • Needle- nose pliers

    Hand drill 100 500
    Hand drill ($100-$500)

    • The hand drill is used to drill holes into different material.

    • Made in various sizes and vary in power from light to heavy and in speeds from slow to fast.

    Belt sander 50 200
    Belt sander ($50-$200)

    • Used to sand down wood and other material for finishing purposes.

    Grinder 30 150
    Grinder ($30-$150)

    • Used for cutting, grinding, and polishing

    • Used for removal of excess material from a job or cutting into.

    Portable circular saw 200 400
    Portable Circular Saw ($200- $400)

    • Can be used for crosscutting, ripping, mitering, beveling, chamfering, rabbeting, cove cutting, tapering, shaping, and molding cutting.

    • Used in situations where the work cannot be moved to the shop or in a shop where table saws are not available.

    • Circular saws come in a variety of blade sizes ranging from 6 1/4” to 8 ½”.

    Jig saw 30 200
    Jig Saw ($30-$200)

    • A tool used for cutting arbitrary curves into wood, metal, or other material.

    • Used for artistic fashion than other saws.

    Chop saw 200 900
    Chop Saw ($200- $900)

    • Used to cut hard materials, such as metals

    • Typically 14 inch in diameter and 7/64 inch thick.

    Drill press 40 400
    Drill Press ($40-$400)

    • Is a fixed drill that may be mounted on a stand or bolted to the floor.

    • Can be used for drilling holes, sanding, honing, and polishing

    Table saw 200 700
    Table Saw ($200-$700)

    • Woodworking tool consisting of a circular saw blade.

    • The higher the blade protrudes above the table the deeper the cut that is made into the wood.

    Radial arm saw 200 600
    Radial Arm Saw ($200- $600)

    • Cutting machine consisting of a circular saw mounted on a sliding horizontal arm

    • Used for making length cuts and can be configured with a dado blade to create cuts for dado, rabbet, and half lap joints

    Compound miter 200 600
    Compound Miter ($200-$600)

    • Has a rotating vertical pivot allowing the cutter head and blade to be tilted sideways in addition to the horizontal rotation table.

    • It allows vertical and horizontal angled cuts as well as cuts angled in both planes.

    Band saw 120 500
    Band Saw ($120- $500)

    • Blade consists of continuous band of metal with teeth along one edge to cut various workspaces.

    • Used for woodworking, metalworking, or for cutting variety of other materials.

    • Useful for cutting irregular or curved shapes but also cut straight cuts as well.

    Oxy acetylene 200 5000
    Oxy- Acetylene ($200- $5000)

    • Used for both welding and cutting metal.

    • Has two cylinders- Oxygen and Acetylene

    Mig welder 200 5000
    MIG Welder ($200- $5000)

    • 1. The wire acts as an electrode and is also the source of the filler metal

    • 2. Combines an inert gas shielding with a continuously fed consumable wire electrode.

    • 3. Fast, portable, vertical process

    Arc welder 200 5000
    Arc Welder ($200- $5000)

    • Used to join pieces of metal together

    • The arc is formed between the actual work and an electrode (stick or wire) that is manually or mechanically guided along the joint.

    Plasma cutter 1000
    Plasma Cutter ($1000)

    • 1.Used to cut steel and other metals of different thickness.

    • 2. Uses a plasma torch

    • 3. An inert gas is blown at high speed out of a nozzle; an electrical arc is formed through the gas from the nozzle to the surface being cut turning some of the gas to plasma.