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HAND TOOLS PowerPoint Presentation


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  1. HAND TOOLS • Screwdrivers • Common or Standard • Should not be used as a punch, chisel, pry-bar, or nail puller • The blade size should be close to the screw slot width, and the blade thickness should fit as tightly as possible in the screw head slot

  2. HAND TOOLS • Phillips • The tip of a Phillips screwdriver is rounded • The tip should fit snugly into the screw head • Frearson • Also known as a Reed and Prince • The tip comes to a point rather than rounded • Any Frearson screwdriver will fit any Frearson screw • However, do not use a Frearson screwdriver in place of a Phillips

  3. HAND TOOLS • Torx • Torx screws have a six point star pattern • Require a Torx driver to properly drive them • Do not use an Allen wrench in place of a Torx driver • Tamperproof Torx • Also called security Torx • A star shaped screw just like a regular Torx except there is an additional hole in the middle • Must use a tamperproof Torx driver to remove these screws

  4. HAND TOOLS • Square • Also called a Robertson drive • A hexagonal shaped driver for driving screws with square holes • Hammers • Common • Have forged steel heads • Sizes vary in weight from 4 ounces to 2 ½ pounds

  5. HAND TOOLS • Types of common hammers are: • Claw hammer – used for driving and pulling nails • Ballpeen hammer – used for metalwork preening operations or for tapping punches and chisels • Soft hammers (mallets) • Used to form soft metals or drive closely fitting parts together • Since they are made of soft material they should not be used for hard work such as driving punches, nuts, or bolts • Two types: soft-faced and true mallet • On a true mallet, the soft head is composed of rubber, brass, bronze, lead, or plastic • On a soft-faced hammer, only the surface of the head is composed of these materials

  6. HAND TOOLS • Safety Precautions • Misuse of a hammer may cause damage to the hammer, the equipment, or the user • Make sure the work ares is clean • Make sure your hands are clean and dry • Never use a hammer or mallet with a loose head; most accidents involving hammers are caused by loose heads

  7. HAND TOOLS • Chisels • Classified according to their type of point • Flat (cold) – most common, used for cutting sheet metal, chipping, cutting heads off rivets or screws, and all general cutting procedures • Cape – used to cut grooves, slots, and chipping flat surfaces too narrow for a flat chisel • Half-roundnose – cuts round (concave) grooves • Diamond Point – cuts V-shaped grooves

  8. HAND TOOLS • Proper use • Hold the chisel cutting edge precisely at the point you wish to make the cut • Choose an angle that will allow it to follow the desired finished surface • After each hammer blow, set the chisel to the correct position for the next cut • Always wear safety glasses when using any type of chisel since pieces of the item being chiseled and pieces of the chisel itself may fly

  9. HAND TOOLS • Proper care • Chisels should always be kept sharp by sharpening the cutting edge at a 60° angle • Chisel heads that have mushroomed from hammer blows should be ground back into the original shape

  10. HAND TOOLS • Punches • The type of punch will depend upon the type of job you are trying to accomplish • There are three general types: • Pin punch • Has a straight shaft • Used to remove a straight pin or taper pin after it has been loosened with a starting punch, which can take more stress • Starting punch • A modified pin punch • Has a tapered shaft used to loosen or set straight or tapered pins

  11. HAND TOOLS • Prick punch • Primarily used for timing marks and making small indentations • Used in metal work to make small indentations that act as guides for a twist-drill • Drift punch • Often called a drift pin • Used for aligning holes in two pieces of material to simplify inserting bolts, rivets, pins, etc.

  12. HAND TOOLS • Pliers • Intended for holding small objects and bending or cutting thin soft wire or metal strips • Should never be used as a tongs • Most common types: • Adjustable combination (standard) pliers • Adjustable water pump (Channel Locks) pliers • Locking pliers (Vise Grips)

  13. HAND TOOLS • Long-nose (needle nosed) pliers • Diagonal cutter • A soft wire cutting tool only; has no gripping jaws • When cutting wire, place the wire as close to the pivot point as possible • Side-cutting pliers • Also called linemans or electricians pliers • Heavy duty pliers that combine the gripping jaw of the combination pliers and the cutting surface of the diagonal cutters

  14. HAND TOOLS • Wrenches • Used to apply a turning force to bolt heads, nuts, and screws; also for gripping round material such as pipes, studs, and rods • Precautions • Each type of wrench has a specific purpose and must be utilized properly or you may injure yourself or damage the equipment • Always pull on a wrench, never push on it • Always make sure the wrench opening fits the nut exactly

  15. HAND TOOLS • Types • Open wrench • Most common type • Usually vary in size from 3/16 to 1 inch • More sturdily constructed than boxend or adjustable wrenches

  16. HAND TOOLS • Adjustable (Crescent) wrench • Should be restricted to light work • Should only be used for odd-sized nuts and bolts • Box wrench • Better than open-end or adjustable wrenches for working in close quarters • Less likely to slip off nut or bolt • More torque can be applied • Come with either six or twelve points • A 6 point is less likely to strip the nut or bolt head • A 12 point can be used to loosen or tighten a nut with a minimum handle travel of 30°

  17. HAND TOOLS • Socket wrenches • Come in both standard and metric sized openings • Come in both 6 and 12 points • Come in differing drive sizes such as 1/4”, 3/8”, and 1/2” • Torque wrench • Actually a special handle for a socket wrench • Used when the torque of a nut or bolt is critical • Torque wrenches are calibrated in inch-pounds or foot-pounds

  18. HAND TOOLS • Two types: • Indicating - indicates the amount of torque being applied either on a dial or a pointer • Brakeaway - automatically releases when a predetermined amount of torque is reached

  19. HAND TOOLS • Hex (Allen) wrench • Come in both standard and metric • Used on setscrews and cap screws with recessed heads • Not designed for high torque • Very common in medical Equipment • Pipe wrench • Designed for use on pipes or round metal • The jaws of the wrench have teeth that bite into the round material to grab in one direction only • Moving the wrench in the opposite direction allows the wrench to be repositioned for additional pulling similar to a ratcheting action

  20. HAND TOOLS • Files • A hardened high-carbon-steel tool used for cutting, removing, smoothing, or polishing metal • The cutting teeth are made up of diagonal rows of chisel cuts along the file face • They come in various shapes and sizes and range in length from 3 to 24 inches

  21. HAND TOOLS • Files are categorized by name and/or cut and grade • Grade refers to the distance between the parallel cuts (coarseness) • The order of coarseness is • Curved • Coarse • Bastard • Second cut • Smooth • Dead smooth

  22. HAND TOOLS • Selecting the correct file: • Use a large, coarse, double-cut file for heavy, rough cutting • Use a second-cut, or smooth, single-cut file when finishing cuts • Use and care • Apply pressure on the forward stroke only • Do not exceed 30 to 40 strokes per minute (may ruin the file and the work)

  23. HAND TOOLS • Always use a file handle to prevent cuts and punctures from the filings • When filing soft metals or narrow surfaces be sure to clean it regularly with a brush or pin to avoid pinning (small particles of the work getting clogged in the file teeth) • Saws • Cross-cut and rip saws are used to cut wood

  24. HAND TOOLS • Hacksaws are used for cutting all types of metal • Two types of frames – solid and adjustable • Two types of blades – all-hard or flexible • The all-hard blade is hardened throughout and is used for sawing brass, tool steel, cast iron, and other stock with a heavy cross section • On a flexible blade only the teeth are hardened, so the blade does not break as easily under bending stress; it is used for sawing hollow shapes and metals with a light cross section such as tin, copper and aluminum • Blades are made with pitches (teeth per inch) of 14, 18, 24, and 32 • Install the blade with the teeth pointed away from you • Pressure is applied on the forward stroke only

  25. HAND TOOLS • Special tools • Screw extractor (Easy Out) • Used to extract broken screws and bolts • The tool is tapered and has sharp ridges (similar to left-hand threads) that grip the sides of the hole drilled into the broken part so it can be backed out of the hole • To perform an extraction: • Drill a hole in the broken part slightly smaller than it’s diameter taking care not to drill into the threads • Insert the screw extractor into the drilled hole, lightly tap the extractor to seat it, and turn it counter-clockwise to remove

  26. HAND TOOLS • Taps and dies – used to cut thread in holes and outside threads on rods or bolts or to repair threads with minor damage • Taps – used for cutting threads inside of holes of metal, fiber, or other material • They range in size from 0 to 30 (i.e. a 10-24 tap will thread a hole for a #10 screw with a threads per inch [tpi] count of 24) • There are three types of taps: • Taper tap – used to start all threads and finish the threading if it can be run entirely through the work • Plug tap – used when one end of the hole is plugged • Bottoming tap – used when it is necessary to cut a full thread to the bottom of a closed hole

  27. HAND TOOLS • Tapping • First determine what screw size you are using by utilizing a pitch gauge. • Next, choose the proper drill size by using a tapping table • Drill a hole in the material you want to thread ensuring the hole is straight • Lubricate the tap with oil to both cool the work and help clear away chips • Mount the tap wrench on the square shank of the tap and turn it in a clockwise direction • Use sufficient downward pressure to start the tap cutting

  28. HAND TOOLS • Once the cutting begins, do not apply any additional pressure • The safest procedure is to take a half turn forward and then a quarter turn back, then a half turn forward, etc., until the work has been completed • The normal procedure for tapping a closed hole is to use each of the three types of taps (taper, plug, bottoming) in succession • When the tap won’t turn and you notice a springy feeling, stop immediately and clear away the chips

  29. HAND TOOLS • Dies – cut outside threads on round stock • Preparation • Clamp the material to be threaded tightly in a vise • Adjust the screw in the die to expand it, then place the die in the die stock • Expansion of the die is required to prevent cutting too deeply on the first cut • Failure to expand the die could cause the die threads to shatter • Use cutting oil for lubrication

  30. HAND TOOLS • Cutting threads • Place the die on the work and, while applying pressure, turn the die stock clockwise • Make sure the die has started straight • If not, straighten it by applying pressure on one side • Turn the die clockwise half a turn, then back it up counter-clockwise a quarter turn to eliminate shavings • Once the die has started cutting threads, downward pressure is no longer required • Continue cutting threads until at least two threads extend past the die or until the desired thread length is reached

  31. HAND TOOLS • To produce good threads, make two cuts with a die • On the second cut, remove the die from the stock and turn the adjusting screw one quarter turn to allow the die to contract slightly • Repeat this procedure until you get the desired fit for the second cut • The second cut is used to produce finished threads • Measurement tools • Used for checking thickness and sizes of parts and materials • In the maintenance area you should find gauges for checking the size of twist drills, wire, screw thread count or pitch, and thickness

  32. HAND TOOLS • Drill gauge • A metal plate with holes corresponding to the various twist drill sizes, each marked to indicate the size • Use a gauge for checking the size of a twist drill or for separating an assortment of unknown sizes • Screw thread gauge • Contains several blades with teeth that correspond to the various screw thread counts • Each blade is stamped with a number indicating the threads per inch

  33. HAND TOOLS • Gap gauge • Measures the space between two objects • Contains hardened steel blades ground to a definite thickness, usually from .001 to .03 inches • Often called a “feeler gauge” • Micrometer or dial caliper • A device for precisely measuring the thickness or length of an object • Often used when a ruler or other measuring device is not convenient or not sufficiently accurate

  34. HAND TOOLS • Tool safety • Don’t hold the work in your hand • If the tool slips it may cut or pierce your hand • Always place the work on a bench or in a vise • Using the wrong size or type of tool may damage the equipment • May strip a nut or bolt by using pliers instead of a proper fitting wrench • Using the wrong sized screwdriver may strip the head of the screw making the job much more difficult

  35. HAND TOOLS • General precautions for tool use • Keep your bench, work area, and tool kit neat, clean, and orderly • Always protect cutting edges • Keep all tool handles and working surfaces free of oil or liquids • “Right tool for the job”