Texans Go to War Unit 6: Chapter 15 Sections 2-3
In its declaration of secession, Texas stated that it intended to go to war to preserve a southern way of life that made racial distinctions, in part, by maintaining blacks in a condition of servitude.
Civil War Begins • The Civil War begins on April 1861 at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina • Confederate forces fire on a Union fort in the harbor and war begins • Beauregard vs. Anderson – Friends yet enemies. Beauregard led the Confederate troops and Anderson led the Union troops.
Many Texans Become Soldiers • Thousands of Texans like other Southerners joined the Confederate army immediately. • In April 1862, the Confederate Congress passed the Conscription Act which required men of a certain age to serve in the Confederate military • German Americans and many other European immigrants to Texas objected to fighting against the Union.
The two highest-ranking Texans in the Confederate army were Albert Sidney Johnston and John Bell Hood.
Most Texans Support the South • After the war began, most Texans who previously had been against secession now supported the Confederacy. • James W. Throckmorton, who had voted against secession, realized that he could not fight against Texas. • About 60,000 Texans joined the armed forces of the Confederacy.
Some Texans Aid the Union • About 2,000 Texas Unionists, including 50 African-Americans, took up arms for the Union. Mexican-Americans served on both sides of the war. • Many Texas Unionists who did not want to fight on either side left Texas.
Study the charts that follow and decide:What were the Union Advantages?What were the Confederate Advantages?
Union “Anaconda” Plan • 1. Capture Richmond, Virginia • Capital of Confederacy • 2. Blockade Southern ports • Prevent trade with other countries • 3. Capture the Mississippi River • Cut Confederacy in half • Cut off trade routes from New Orleans and Texas
Strategies • Union strategy to conquer South was called the Anaconda Plan. • Confederate strategy to win the Union: 1) defend the Confederate states 2) invade Northern states if opportunity arises
Union “Anaconda” Plan • For chart on #15: • List the 3 parts of the Anaconda Plan. • Identify a G-PERSIA category or categories that explains the purpose of each part.
Texas-Mexico Trade Routes Texas was economically important to the Confederacy because the Confederacy was able to conduct foreign trade through Mexico by way of Texas.
Ft Sumter • April 12, 1861 • Charleston Harbor – Charleston, S.C. • Union surrendered the fort
Significance of Ft. Sumter • Led to the secession of Virginia (VA), Arkansas (AR), Tennessee (TN), and North Carolina (NC) • First military action of the war • This is the start of the Civil War!
First Battle of Bull Run • July 21, 1861 • Manassas, Virginia (also called “1st Manassas”) • 30 miles from Washington, D.C. • Confederates won the battle, but failed to force the Union army to retreat. • 4,700 killed/wounded/captured (K/W/C)
Significance of Bull Run • First major battle of the war • Confederate victory and a major morale boost for the South. • It showed both sides that the War would not go exactly as expected-people thought the war would be over in a few days—it would last 4 years.
Battle of Shiloh • April 6-7, 1862 • Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee • near Shiloh Church • Confederate army drove Union back on the first day, but the Union won the battle the second day. • 24,000 K/W/C
Significance of Shiloh • Texas General Albert Sidney Johnston killed. • Considered one of South’s best Generals • His death was a severe blow to Confederate Army • Fought at Battle of San Jacinto • Showed Americans that this would be a long and bloody war. • It also showed the determination and skill of Ulysses S. Grant.
Battle of Antietam • September 17, 1862 • Bloodiest single day of the Civil War • Bloodiest single day battle in American History! • Battle is a Standoff and no side wins • 28,000 killed (more WC)
Battle of Gettysburg • July 1 - 3, 1863 • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania • General R.E. Lee led Confederate forces into the North. The Union army defeated the confederates in a costly 3 day battle • 46,000 K/W/C • Bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War!
Significance of Gettysburg • Turning point of the war • Confederate invasion of the North failed. It was a HUGE morale defeat for the South. • Combined with the defeat at Vicksburg the next day, the South was never able to recover.
Vicksburg • May 18 - July 4, 1863 • Vicksburg, Mississippi • on Mississippi River • Confederates surrender after 47 day Union siege of the city. • 36,000 K/W/C
Significance of Vicksburg • Ulysses S. Grant took control of the Mississippi River. • Split the confederacy in half and cut off important trade routes through New Orleans and Texas.
Texans on the Attack • The Confederacy’s first objective was to overtake Union garrisons and supplies. • Texas launched a preventive strike on Union Forces in New Mexico. • The New Mexico Campaign failed and was abandoned in July 1862.
Battle of Galveston • Union ships blockade Texas ports. • Cotton was transported through Mexico and sent to Europe in exchange for war supplies. • In October 1862 Union forces attacked and captured Galveston. • Texas Confederate forces retook Galveston in January 1863.
Emancipation Proclamation • By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln makes slavery the focus of the war. • Terms of the Proclamation: 1) Frees slaves in the Confederate states 2) Does NOT apply to areas occupied by the Union or states where slavery is permitted in the Union – (border states of Missouri and Kentucky) • Discourages Britain from supporting/joining the Confederacy The Proclamation brings mixed reactions….
Some Reactions: • gives war a higher moral purpose • Free blacks can now join Union army and fight against slavery • Northern Democrats claim it will antagonize the South and prolong the war • Confederacy now MORE DETERMINED to fight to keep slavery • No chance of compromise now-one side must WIN and the other side must LOSE!