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Unit 6: Chapter 15 Sections 2-3

Texans Go to War. Unit 6: Chapter 15 Sections 2-3. In its declaration of secession, Texas stated that it intended to go to war to preserve a southern way of life that made racial distinctions, in part, by maintaining blacks in a condition of servitude. . Civil War Begins.

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Unit 6: Chapter 15 Sections 2-3

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  1. Texans Go to War Unit 6: Chapter 15 Sections 2-3

  2. In its declaration of secession, Texas stated that it intended to go to war to preserve a southern way of life that made racial distinctions, in part, by maintaining blacks in a condition of servitude.

  3. Civil War Begins • The Civil War begins on April 1861 at Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, South Carolina • Confederate forces fire on a Union fort in the harbor and war begins • Beauregard vs. Anderson – Friends yet enemies. Beauregard led the Confederate troops and Anderson led the Union troops.

  4. Many Texans Become Soldiers • Thousands of Texans like other Southerners joined the Confederate army immediately. • In April 1862, the Confederate Congress passed the Conscription Act which required men of a certain age to serve in the Confederate military • German Americans and many other European immigrants to Texas objected to fighting against the Union.

  5. The two highest-ranking Texans in the Confederate army were Albert Sidney Johnston and John Bell Hood.

  6. Most Texans Support the South • After the war began, most Texans who previously had been against secession now supported the Confederacy. • James W. Throckmorton, who had voted against secession, realized that he could not fight against Texas. • About 60,000 Texans joined the armed forces of the Confederacy.


  8. Some Texans Aid the Union • About 2,000 Texas Unionists, including 50 African-Americans, took up arms for the Union. Mexican-Americans served on both sides of the war. • Many Texas Unionists who did not want to fight on either side left Texas.

  9. Major Battles of the Civil War

  10. Study the charts that follow and decide:What were the Union Advantages?What were the Confederate Advantages?

  11. Rating the North & South - Population

  12. Railroad Lines in 1860

  13. Industries & Workers: North & South

  14. Soldiers Present for Duty in the Civil War

  15. Copy on back page:

  16. Union “Anaconda” Plan • 1. Capture Richmond, Virginia • Capital of Confederacy • 2. Blockade Southern ports • Prevent trade with other countries • 3. Capture the Mississippi River • Cut Confederacy in half • Cut off trade routes from New Orleans and Texas

  17. Strategies • Union strategy to conquer South was called the Anaconda Plan. • Confederate strategy to win the Union: 1) defend the Confederate states 2) invade Northern states if opportunity arises

  18. Union “Anaconda” Plan • For chart on #15: • List the 3 parts of the Anaconda Plan. • Identify a G-PERSIA category or categories that explains the purpose of each part.

  19. Anaconda Plan

  20. Texas-Mexico Trade Routes Texas was economically important to the Confederacy because the Confederacy was able to conduct foreign trade through Mexico by way of Texas.

  21. The Progress of War 1861-1865

  22. Ft Sumter • April 12, 1861 • Charleston Harbor – Charleston, S.C. • Union surrendered the fort

  23. Significance of Ft. Sumter • Led to the secession of Virginia (VA), Arkansas (AR), Tennessee (TN), and North Carolina (NC) • First military action of the war • This is the start of the Civil War!

  24. First Battle of Bull Run • July 21, 1861 • Manassas, Virginia (also called “1st Manassas”) • 30 miles from Washington, D.C. • Confederates won the battle, but failed to force the Union army to retreat. • 4,700 killed/wounded/captured (K/W/C)

  25. Significance of Bull Run • First major battle of the war • Confederate victory and a major morale boost for the South. • It showed both sides that the War would not go exactly as expected-people thought the war would be over in a few days—it would last 4 years.

  26. Battle of Shiloh • April 6-7, 1862 • Pittsburg Landing, Tennessee • near Shiloh Church • Confederate army drove Union back on the first day, but the Union won the battle the second day. • 24,000 K/W/C

  27. Significance of Shiloh • Texas General Albert Sidney Johnston killed. • Considered one of South’s best Generals • His death was a severe blow to Confederate Army • Fought at Battle of San Jacinto • Showed Americans that this would be a long and bloody war. • It also showed the determination and skill of Ulysses S. Grant.

  28. Battle of Antietam • September 17, 1862 • Bloodiest single day of the Civil War • Bloodiest single day battle in American History! • Battle is a Standoff and no side wins • 28,000 killed (more WC)

  29. Battle of Gettysburg • July 1 - 3, 1863 • Gettysburg, Pennsylvania • General R.E. Lee led Confederate forces into the North. The Union army defeated the confederates in a costly 3 day battle • 46,000 K/W/C • Bloodiest battle of the entire Civil War!

  30. Significance of Gettysburg • Turning point of the war • Confederate invasion of the North failed. It was a HUGE morale defeat for the South. • Combined with the defeat at Vicksburg the next day, the South was never able to recover.

  31. Vicksburg • May 18 - July 4, 1863 • Vicksburg, Mississippi • on Mississippi River • Confederates surrender after 47 day Union siege of the city. • 36,000 K/W/C

  32. Significance of Vicksburg • Ulysses S. Grant took control of the Mississippi River. • Split the confederacy in half and cut off important trade routes through New Orleans and Texas.

  33. Texans on the Attack • The Confederacy’s first objective was to overtake Union garrisons and supplies. • Texas launched a preventive strike on Union Forces in New Mexico. • The New Mexico Campaign failed and was abandoned in July 1862.

  34. Battle of Galveston • Union ships blockade Texas ports. • Cotton was transported through Mexico and sent to Europe in exchange for war supplies. • In October 1862 Union forces attacked and captured Galveston. • Texas Confederate forces retook Galveston in January 1863.

  35. TheEmancipationProclamation

  36. Emancipation Proclamation • By issuing the Emancipation Proclamation, President Lincoln makes slavery the focus of the war. • Terms of the Proclamation: 1) Frees slaves in the Confederate states 2) Does NOT apply to areas occupied by the Union or states where slavery is permitted in the Union – (border states of Missouri and Kentucky) • Discourages Britain from supporting/joining the Confederacy The Proclamation brings mixed reactions….

  37. Emancipation in 1863

  38. Some Reactions: • gives war a higher moral purpose • Free blacks can now join Union army and fight against slavery • Northern Democrats claim it will antagonize the South and prolong the war • Confederacy now MORE DETERMINED to fight to keep slavery • No chance of compromise now-one side must WIN and the other side must LOSE!

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