Defining Creativity. Class 1 January 10, 2005. Creativity. Consumer Creativity. And of course, the embattled Martha….
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Defining Creativity Class 1 January 10, 2005
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Creativity Defined • The ability to produce work that is BOTH • Novel (i.e., original, unexpected, innovative) • Appropriate (i.e., useful, practical, effective) • (Sternberg 1999; Finke, Ward, & Smith 1992) • The novel/original dimension is the more respected of the two • (Barron 1995; Runco & Sakamoto 1999)
No Situation Effects Some Situation Effects Strong Situation Effects Creativity:An individual trait or situation-driven? • Both • Individual Trait: • Scientific Creativity (Engineer, Chemist) • Artistic Creativity (Painter, Composer) • Combo (Inventor) -- rare • Situation-Driven: • No creative ability • Low creative ability • Some creative ability
Factors Influencing Creativity Under Managerial Control: • Time • Instructions / Managerial Input • Size and Composition of groups Partially Under Managerial Control: • Motivation: • Extrinsic • Knowledge Not Under Direct Managerial Control: • Motivation • Intrinsic • Intelligence • Personality • Individual Differences: Need for Cognition, Dogmatism, Divergent Thinking Ability
Creativity • Problem Solving • Insight • Remote Associates Test (Mednick 1962) • Rat, Blue, Cottage • Nine Dot Problem • Connect all of the dots using no more than 4 straight lines, never going to a given dot twice, and never lifting the pen
Creativity • Problem Solving • Insight • Problem Finding • Requires Problem Definition • Requires an allocation of cognitive capital (Sternberg & Lubart 1991) to “think about what you’re going to think about” (Nickerson 2000) • More associated with creativity (Csikszentmihalyi & Getzels 1971; 1975)
Approaches to Studying Creativity • Case Studies / Historiometric • Developmental • Biological • Psychometric • Experimental • Social-Personality • (e.g. motivation, risk-taking, intelligence) • Cognitive • (e.g., processing strategies, imagery)
The Creative Cognition Approach • Creative accomplishments, whether mundane or extraordinary, are based on ordinary mental processes • Thus, our understanding of human cognition can be directly applied to understanding creative thought as well
The Creative Cognition Approach • The Geneplore Model • Generative Processes • Pre-Inventive Structures (Finke, Ward, and Smith 1992) • Mental transformation / assimilation to create a structure • For example, arrange an 8, a V, and a circle to make a figure or structure • Exploratory Processes
Creative Cognition • Path of Least Resistance (“POLR”) (Perkins 1997; Ward 1994) • Top-Down Process • Recall an existing solution to an active problem • Implement a well-known plan to solve it
Constraints and the POLR • Constraints • Input Restrictions • In-Stock (Acquisition Costs) • Monetary (Budgetary Constraints)