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GLYCOLYSIS Glucose ATP Hexokinase ADP Glucose 6-phosphate P hosphogluco- i somerase

GLYCOLYSIS Glucose ATP Hexokinase ADP Glucose 6-phosphate P hosphogluco- i somerase Fructose 6-phosphate ATP Phosphofructokinase ADP Fructose 1.6- bis phosphate Aldolase Triose phosphate isomerase Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde phosphate 3-phosphate.

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GLYCOLYSIS Glucose ATP Hexokinase ADP Glucose 6-phosphate P hosphogluco- i somerase

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  1. GLYCOLYSIS Glucose ATP HexokinaseADP Glucose 6-phosphate Phosphogluco- isomerase Fructose 6-phosphate ATP Phosphofructokinase ADP Fructose 1.6-bisphosphate Aldolase Triose phosphate isomerase Dihydroxyacetone Glyceraldehyde phosphate 3-phosphate

  2. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate Glyceraldehyde NAD+ + Pi 3-phosphate NADH + H+ dehydrogenase 1,.3-Bisphosphoglycerate   ADP Phosphoglycerate kinaseATP 3-Phosphoglycerate Phosphoglyceromutase 2-Phosphoglycerate Enolase H2O Phosphoenolpyruvate ADP Pyruvate kinaseATP Pyruvate

  3. Pyruvate Alcohol Anaerobic FermentationGlycolysis Aerobic Glycolysis

  4. Glycolysis - What is glycolysis? - Ten step metabolic pathway to convert glucose into two molecules of pyruvate and two molecules each of NADH and ATP. - All carbohydrates to be catabolized must enter the glycolytic pathway. - Glycolysis is central in generating both energy and metabolic intermediaries.

  5. -Pyruvatecan be further processed: a) anaerobically to lactate in muscle and in certain micro-organisms or b) anaerobically to ethanol (fermentation) or c) aerobically to CO2 and H2O via the citric acid cycle.

  6. Glycolysis has two phases. A. An energy investment phase. Reactions, 1-5. Glucose to two glyceraldehyde -3-phosphate molecules. 2 ATPs are invested. B. An energy payoff phase. Reactions 6-10. two glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate molecules to two pyruvate plus four ATP molecules. -- A net of two ATP molecules overall plus two NADH.

  7. Phase I. Energy Investment. 1- Glucose is phosphorylated to glucose-6-phosphate (G6P). This phosphorylation at the expense of an ATP commits the glucose to this pathway. The investment of an ATP here is called “priming.” Enzymes = Hexokinase or Glucokinase

  8. p450 MVA

  9. 2- Isomerization of glucose-6-phosphate (G6P) to fructose-6-phosphate (F6P). Enzyme = phosphoglucoisomerase aldose to ketose isomerization

  10. 3- A second phosphorylation. Enzyme = phosphofructokinase • second ATP investment

  11. 4- Cleavage of a 6C sugar to 2 3C sugars

  12. 5- Isomerization of dihydroxyacetone Phosphate (DHAP) into glyceraldehyde 3 phosphate (G3P) Enzyme = triose-phosphate isomerase only G3P can be used further in glycolysis.

  13. ************************************************* End of First Phase: - Production of two glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate molecules from one glucose molecule with the expenditure of two ATPs. - Therefore: the energy yields of the following steps are multipled by two. ************************************************** Second Phase:

  14. 6- Oxidation of glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate to 1.3-bisphosphoglycerate (1,3-BPG). -addition of phosphate, oxidation, production of NADH, formation of high energy compound

  15. 7- Transfer of phosphate to make ATP Enzyme = phosphoglycerate kinase • - first substrate level phosphorylation, • yielding ATP • At this point ATP yield = ATP input • 1,3-BPG is turned into 3-phosphoglycerate • (3-PG)

  16. 8- Phosphate shift setup for 3-PG to 2-PG Enzyme = phosphoglycerate mutase - transfer phosphate from position 3 to 2.

  17. 9- Generation of second very high energy compound by a dehydration Enzyme = enolase 2-PG becomes phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP)

  18. 10- Final generation of ATP Enzyme = pyruvate kinase P O H ADP ATP O -OOC-C=CH -OOC-C-CH3 phosphoenolpyruvate pyruvate - second substrate level phosphorylation yielding ATP

  19. Bookkeeping: 2 ATPs from each glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate = total of 4 per original glucose. - 2 ATPs were invested in the first phase of glycolysis. - 2 molecules of NADH also produced. Glycolysis: Invest 2 ATP 4 ATP  net 2 ATP and 2 NADH

  20. Summary of Energy Relationships for Glycolysis Input = 2 ATP 1. glucose + ATP  glucose-6-P  2. fructose-6-P + ATP  fructose 1,6 bisphosphate Output = 4 ATP + 2 NADH 1. 2 glyceraldehyde-3-P + 2 Pi + 2 NAD+ 2 (1,3 bisphosphoglycerate) + 2 NADH 2. 2 (1,3 bisphosphoglycerate) + 2 ADP 2 (3-P-glycerate) + 2 ATP 3. 2 PEP + 2 ADP  2 pyruvate + 2 ATP Net = 2 ATP and 2 NADH

  21. Energy Yield From Glycolysis glucose 6 CO2 = -2840 kJ/mole 2 ATPs produced = 61 kJ/mole glucose Energy yield = 61/2840 = 2% recovered as ATP - subsequent oxidation of pyruvate and NADH can recover more of the free energy from glucose.

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