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Chapter 37 Soil ~P lant Nutrition. Nutrients. Essential : required for the plant life cycle Macro - (large amounts) carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium

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slide1
Chapter 37

Soil ~Plant Nutrition

nutrients
Nutrients
  • Essential: required for the plant life cycle
  • Macro- (large amounts) carbon, oxygen, hydrogen, nitrogen, sulfur, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium
  • Micro- (small amounts; cofactors of enzyme action) chlorine, iron, boron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, nickel
  • Deficiency • chlorosis (lack of magnesium; chlorophyll production)
slide3
Soil
  • Determines plant growth & variety (also climate)
  • Composition/horizons:
  • •topsoil (rock particles, living organisms, humus-partially decayed organic material)
  • •loams (equal amounts of sand, silt, and clay)
nitrogen fixation
Nitrogen Fixation
  • Atmosphere, 80% N2
  • Conversion to: ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3-)
  • Bacteria types: Ammonifying (humus decomposition); nitrogen-fixing (atmospheric N2); nitrifying (convert NH4+ to NO3-); denitrifying (convert NO3- to N2)
  • Nitrogen fixation; crop rotation
plant symbiosis i
Plant symbiosis, I
  • Rhizobium bacteria (found in root nodules in the legume family)
  • Mutualistic: legume receives fixed N2; bacteria receives carbohydrates & organic materials
plant symbiosis ii
Plant symbiosis, II
  • Mycorrhizae (fungi); modified roots
  • Mutualistic: fungus receives sugar; plant receives increased root surface area and increased phosphate uptake
  • Two types: ectomycorrhizae • ensheaths the root endomycorrhizae (90% of plants) •through cell wall but not cell membrane
plant parasitism predation
Plant parasitism & predation
  • Mistletoe (parasite)
  • Epiphytes
  • Carnivorous plants