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Soil Databases

Soil Databases

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Soil Databases

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  1. Soil Databases National Soil Information System National Soil Information System

  2. Soil Survey? A soil survey describes the characteristics of the soils in a given area, classifies the soils according to a standard system of classification, plots the boundaries of the soils on a map, and makes predictions about the behavior of soils. The different uses of the soils and how the response of management affects them are considered. The information collected in a soil survey helps in the development of land-use plans and evaluates and predicts the effects of land use on the environment. SSM Chapter 1 National Soil Information System

  3. Soil Survey Pedon Description Lab Data Properties Interpretations National Soil Information System

  4. Soil Survey • What properties do you extract from a pedon description?? • Think about it while we finish… National Soil Information System

  5. What is a Pedon? • Pedon.—The pedon is presented in Soil Taxonomy (Soil Survey Staff, 1975) as a unit of sampling within a soil. The limits on the area of a pedon establish rules for deciding whether to consider one or two or more kinds of soil within a small-scale pattern of local lateral variability. A pedon is regarded as the smallest body of one kind of soil large enough to represent the nature and arrangement of horizons and variability in the other properties that are preserved in samples. (SSM Ch. 2, page 1) National Soil Information System

  6. Why Pedon? During field operations, many soils are investigated by examining the soil material removed by a sampling tube or an auger. For rapid investigations of thin soils, a small pit can be dug and a section of soil removed with a spade. All of these are samples of pedons. Knowledge of the internal properties of a soil is derived mainly from studies of such samples. They can be studied more rapidly than entire pedons; consequently, a much larger number can be studied in many more places. For many soils, the information obtained from such a small sample describes the pedon from which it is taken with few omissions. For other soils, however, important properties of a pedon are not observable in the smaller sample, and detailed studies of entire pedons may be needed. Complete study of an entire pedon requires the exposure of a vertical section and the removal of horizontal sections layer by layer. Horizons are studied in both horizontal and vertical dimensions. (SSM Ch. 3, page 1) National Soil Information System

  7. Terminology Site? Pedon? Transect? Site Association? National Soil Information System

  8. Site The Site describes the location information and characteristics of a particular geographic location. A site may be a specific location such as a point where a soil profile description is taken, or it may have some spatial area that is chosen to be treated as a single point. Various kinds of data such as soil profile descriptions, lab data, vegetative data, etc. may be linked to a site. National Soil Information System

  9. Pedon The Pedon contains information collected at the time a soil profile description is made. It has data that relates to the profile as a whole. A description of a pedon is commonly based on examination of a profile, and the properties of the pedon are projected from the properties of the profile. National Soil Information System

  10. Transect The Transect is used to record groupings of pedons that are the stops along transects. It is common to employ transects to estimate the composition of map units. The first aspect of composition is to identify the taxonomic components because they are the things that we have learned to identify and recognize. National Soil Information System

  11. Site Association The Site Association is used to record some natural or artificial grouping of sites. Various types of groupings may be recorded as needed by the user. Examples might include sites that are included in a special soil temperature or soil moisture study. National Soil Information System

  12. PedonPC National Soil Information System

  13. PedonPC National Soil Information System

  14. PedonPC on the Tablet National Soil Information System

  15. Entering Pedons into NASIS See Soil Survey Lab Information Manual, page 4 National Soil Information System

  16. Site Child Tables National Soil Information System

  17. NASIS Pedon Object Link the Site and Pedon together with the same ID National Soil Information System

  18. AnalysisPC National Soil Information System

  19. AnalysisPC National Soil Information System

  20. Building Components An individual component of a map unit represents the collection of polypedons or parts of polypedons that are members of the taxon or a kind of miscellaneous area. Parts of polypedons are common when phases are used to divide a taxon. It is common to employ transects to estimate the composition of map units. The first aspect of composition is to identify the taxonomic components because they are the things that we have learned to identify and recognize. These can be translated or interpreted as responses or properties or whatever has an acceptable relationship. SSM Chapter 2 p. 7 National Soil Information System

  21. What is a “Component”? An individual component of a map unit represents the collection of polypedons or parts of polypedons that are members of the taxon or a kind of miscellaneous area. National Soil Information System

  22. What is a “Component”? Map Units of Soil Surveys (NSSH 627.03(b)(4)) • Components, whether major or minor, meet the following criteria: • exist in most delineations, • add to the understanding of the map unit, • are contrasting to all other components in the map unit (do not list similar soils as components), and • allow for useful and significant soil data and interpretations to the users. • Documented components that do not meet the above criteria are similar or nonrecurring or isolated features of the map unit. If appropriate, recognize nonrecurring, contrasting components with special or ad hoc features, or point or linear map unit delineations. National Soil Information System

  23. What is a “Component”? Map Units of Soil Surveys (NSSH 627.03(b)(5)) • The composition and purity of map units are important in the interpretation of soil maps. Most delineations of a map unit include dissimilar soils or miscellaneous areas of minor extent that are not identified in the map unit name but may be included in the database for the unit.Practical field mapping methods cannot delineate these components at the selected scale of mapping. But they may be associated with a specific landform segment different from that of the named components of the map unit. Some of these components could be delineated if smaller management units were needed. National Soil Information System

  24. Things I learned living in Texas • You only own four spices – salt, pepper, Tabasco and Ketchup • You think the first day of deer season is a national holiday • You find 100 degrees a “bit warm” • You know all four seasons: Almost summer, summer, still summer and Christmas National Soil Information System

  25. What is the “National Soil Information System”? • NASIS is the NRCS’ soils inventory (collection to publication) database system • NASIS is one part of NRCS resource information system • NASIS is a set of soil survey concepts • NASIS is a data management system (software) National Soil Information System

  26. National Soil Information System Definition and Purpose (638.00) • (a) Soil data systems aid the collection, storage, manipulation, and dissemination of soil information. Soil data systems consist of multiple automated soil applications or modules that stand alone or interact with each other to provide information. • (b) The National Cooperative Soil Survey (NCSS) collects, manages, interprets, and disseminates soil survey information using a dynamic soil information system from which many different products can be made. National Soil Information System

  27. National Soil Information System NRCS Information System NASIS PLANTS ESIS Climate Data DOQs Spatial National Soil Information System

  28. “National Soil Information System” Concepts National Soil Information System

  29. Public Data CustomerProducts Field Data Collection Plant Data Lab Manage Soil Data Soil Survey Report Manuscript text Pedon NASIS database Soil Data SSURGO Range Analyze/ Summarize Forest CST Climate Data Soil Map FOTG DOQs Crops NASIS as the “Data Management System” Custom Reports National Soil Information System

  30. WHY NASIS ? • We need to be able to deliver data in a timely manner (10 years to publish?) • We need to improve data integrity, quality, and consistency (good “field” data) • We need the ability to modify our data base by adding new soil properties as they become a priority National Soil Information System

  31. National Soil Information System eFOTG Resource Data Gateway Product Development On-line Soil Surveys Electronic Soil Surveys Web Soil Survey Spatial Data (Dig Units) Soil Data Mart(s) Soil Data Warehouse Soil Staging Server NASIS Transaction Database Soil Data Access Pedon LIMS NRI Models & Applications -- RUSLE2, WinPST, WEPS, etc National Soil Information System

  32. “NASIS” - database • NASIS software is a data management tool • NASIS software does not enforce program policy or procedures • NASIS software does not make correlation decisions - humans do • “NASIS” database is “transactional” National Soil Information System

  33. NASIS - data management • “NASIS” provides capability to : • query data • add/delete data • search database • interpret data • report data and interpretation results • edit data • calculate and validate data • ensure data integrity • export data National Soil Information System

  34. Where should the data come from? National Soil Information System Spatial Data (Dig Units) NASIS Transaction Database Pedon LIMS National Soil Information System

  35. Things I learned while in Texas • Iced tea is appropriate for all meals and you start drinking it when you’re two. We do like a little tea with our sugar. • “Backwards and forwards” means “I know everything about you”. • The word “jeet” is actually a phrase meaning “Did you eat?” • You don’t PUSH buttons, you MASH EM National Soil Information System

  36. NASIS Objects National Soil Information System

  37. What is a “Datamapunit”? NSSH 639.02(b) The Data Mapunit Object • The data mapunit object is a record or a collection of records concerningcomposition, physical, chemical, morphological, and interpretation properties and performancefor a map unit and each of its components. A data mapunit object is a set of data records and as such is not related to any geographic area or map unit delineation unless linked to a delineated area in a soil survey area legend. These records are used to document map unit characteristics and create reports of soil properties and interpretations. Data mapunit objects are created as needed and retained as part of the historical records.What is a Datamapunit? It is the “Data” for the “Mapunit”. National Soil Information System

  38. What is a “Datamapunit”? National Soil Information System

  39. What is a “Datamapunit”? National Soil Information System

  40. What is a “Component”? • Map Unit “Component” – the lowest level spatial entity for which a range of soil property data is stored. It has known extent, but unknown spatial location, except by relative topographic position in the map unit. National Soil Information System

  41. What is a “Component”? • Map units can have unlimited components, and components can have unlimited horizons. (with freedom comes responsibility) • “Inclusions” are contrasting components of minor extent • Soil property ranges are not limited to series or other taxonomic class limits. Soil Properties and Soil Qualities (618.03),Technical Note #4 National Soil Information System

  42. What is a “Component”? Soil Properties and Qualities Definition and Purpose (NSSH 618.00) • Soil properties are measured or inferred from direct observations in the field or laboratory. Soil properties include, but are not limited to, particle-size distribution, cation exchange capacity, and salinity. • Soil qualities are behavior and performance attributes that are not directly measured. They are inferred from observations of dynamic conditions and from soil properties. Soil qualities include, but are not limited to, corrosivity, natural drainage, frost action, and wind erodibility. • Soil properties and soil qualities are the criteria used in soil interpretation rating guides, as predictors of soil behavior, and for classification and mapping of soils. The soil properties entered should be representative of the soil for the dominant land use for which interpretations will be based. National Soil Information System

  43. What is a “Component”? Policy and Responsibilities (618.01) • Soil property data are collected, tested, and correlated as part of soil survey operations. These data are reviewed, supplemented, and revised as necessary. • The soil survey project office is responsible for collecting, testing, and correlating soil property data and interpretive criteria. • The MLRA office is responsible for the development, maintenance, quality assurance, correlation, and coordination of the collection of soil property data that are used as interpretive criteria. This includes all data elements listed in part 618. • The National Soil Survey Center is responsible for the training, review, and periodic update of soil interpretation technologies. • The state soil scientist is responsible for ensuring that the soil interpretations are adequate for the field office technical guide and that they meet the needs of federal, state, and local programs. National Soil Information System

  44. What is a “Component”? Soil Properties and Soil Qualities (618.03) • Previous databases of soil survey information used metric or English units for soil properties and qualities. The National Soil Information System (NASIS) transferred English units to metric units on conversion, except for crop yields in the database. All future edits and entries in NASIS will use metric units, except yields and acreage. • Ranges of soil properties and qualities, posted in the NASIS database for map unit components, may extend beyond the established limits of the taxon from which the component gets its name, but only to the extent that interpretations do not change. However, the representative value (RV) is within the range of the taxon. National Soil Information System

  45. Building Components in NASIS National Soil Information System

  46. What is a “Component”? Map units can have unlimited components(with freedom comes responsibility) National Soil Information System

  47. What is a “Horizon”? National Soil Information System

  48. What is a “Horizon”? Components can have unlimited horizons. (with freedom comes responsibility) National Soil Information System

  49. What is included in a Horizon? National Soil Information System

  50. Populating NASIS Horizons are grouped into layers based on similar properties and nomenclature National Soil Information System