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Australia and Oceania PowerPoint Presentation
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Australia and Oceania

Australia and Oceania

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Australia and Oceania

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  1. Australia and Oceania

  2. Micronesia Polynesia Melanesia Australia New Zealand  Interplay between European and indigenous culture European dominance  Indigenous dominance

  3. Introduction • Isolated physical setting • Exotic plants and animals • Late arrival of human occupations • Interplay between indigenous peoples and European cultures • Cultural adaptation, assimilation, and conflicts • Youthful political geography • Fluid geopolitical identity

  4. Environmental Geography Varied Natural and Human Habitat

  5. Volcanic islands Oceania Australia New Zealand Arid interior (outback), highly urbanized coast Rugged mountain Landform

  6. Great Artesian Basin Plateau Basin Highlands Landform Australia • Western Plateau • Ancient shield landmass • Interior Lowlands • Flat, and featureless lowland • Eastern Highlands • Barrier between western interior and eastern coastal plain

  7. Landform Artesian well • Interior basin lacks water supply, but the Great Artesian Basin possesses a rich supply of underground water

  8. Landform New Zealand • Rugged mountain range featured by volcanic peaks  Pacific Rim of Fire • Fjord-like western coast in the South Island  Glacial forces

  9. Micronesia Volcanic islands Polynesia Melanesia Bora Bora Seismic hazards (Pacific Rim) Landform Oceania

  10. Landform Volcanic Islands Bora Bora, French Polynesia

  11. High islands Hot spot Low islands Landform Evolution of Volcanic Islands 3. Islands subside below sea level 1. Active volcanism 2. Volcanism dwindles & erosion intervenes Geologic time

  12. A. Tropical Oceania B. Arid Outback C. Temperate Australian and New Zealand coastal plain Climate

  13. Drought Seismic hazards (Pacific Rim of Fire) Environmental issues Natural Hazards

  14. Logging Mining Environmental issues Global Resource Pressures

  15. Environmental issues Mining in Papua New Guinea Mining, while providing incomes, causes immense environmental damage to the region

  16. 1946 - 1958 Marshall Islands 1990s Tuamotu Archipelago Environmental issues Nuclear Testing

  17. Population and Settlement A Diverse Cultural Landscape

  18. Indigenous settlement • Aborigines in Australia, Maori in New Zealand • New Guinea Highlands, Society Islands • European migrations • Sydney, Melbourne… • Asian laborers and immigrants • Indian in Fiji, Japanese in Hawaii • Recent Asian immigrants in Australia

  19. Australia and New Zealand are highly urbanized and Westernized • Most of pacific islands are rural (eg. Papua New Guinea)

  20. Population distribution

  21. Sydney, Australia Most Australians (85%) live in cities

  22. Peopling the Pacific

  23. European Colonization • Australia • Served as a penal colony (1788) • Decimation of Aborigines • New Zealand • Wars with Maori chiefdoms (1845 ~ 1870) • Hawaii • U.S. annexed Hawaiian kingdom (1898)

  24. Australian agriculture • Too dryfor farming  extensive ranching • Commercial farming in the coastal plains • Hunting, gathering by Aborigines • Viniculture in Mediterranean climate region • Sugarcane in subtropical climate region • Dairy farming in well-watered area

  25. Oceanic agriculture • Village-centered shifting cultivation • Papua New Guinea highlands • Plantation agriculture in coastal plains • Sugarcane fields in Fiji and Hawaii

  26. Current population issues • Australia and New Zealand • Influx of Asian immigrants • Less-developed island nations • Growing population given limited land

  27. Cultural Coherence and Diversity A Global Crossroads

  28. Process of Cultural Change • Cultural differentiation  geographical isolation • Cultural accommodation/assimilation  European colonialism • Cultural homogenization or preservation  globalization

  29. Multicultural Australia • Dominance of colonial European roots • 70% of population is British or Irish • White Australia Policy (~1973) • Remaining links with the British Crown • But increasingly multicultural due to • Political movement of native inhabitants • Inflows of Asian immigrants with a skill • “Asianization” policy • Two-way globalization

  30. Multicultural New Zealand • Parallel the story of Australia with a slightly different cultural mix • Unique Polynesian roots • Maori (15%) • Pacific islanders (5%)

  31. The Mosaic of Pacific Cultures (1) • Traditional culture worlds • The division of Oceania into Melanesia, Micronesia, and Polynesia is based on racial and cultural distinctions by 19c anthropologists Melanesia Micronesia Polynesia Skin color: dark brown Social system: village chiefdom kingdom • But the actual distinction is rather subtle • Revolves around village life • Highlanders in Papua New Guinea

  32. The Mosaic of Pacific Cultures (2) • External cultural influences • Colonial plantation brought contact laborers • Japanese/Chinese in Hawaii, Indian in Fiji • Creole cultures • Multicultural Hawaiians • French New Caledonia • Pidgin English & Christianity • International tourism transforms their livelihoods • Fiji, French Polynesia, The Hawaiian Islands, Samoa

  33. Language of Australia and Oceania

  34. Geopolitical Framework A Land of Fluid Boundaries

  35. Colonial legacy • Ever-changing political map • Over the last two centuries • Persisting colonial ties • French Polynesia • U.S. territory • Youthful states • Oldest political states are the 20th century creation • Australia, New Zealand (1907)

  36. Indigenous Patterns • Prior to European contact, the political geography was mosaic of indigenous territories • Melanesia based on kinship • Polynesia based on chiefdom • Some large volcanic islands of Polynesia formed kingdom (eg. Hawaii)

  37. An Imposed Colonial Framework(circa 1900) U.S. Germany France Britain

  38. An Imposed Colonial Framework(After WWI) U.S. Japan Britain France Australia New Zealand

  39. An Imposed Colonial Framework(After WWII) U.S. Britain France Australia New Zealand

  40. An Imposed Colonial Framework(present day) U.S. France New Zealand

  41. Germany Japanese U.S. (1885~1914) (1914~1944) (1947~1979) Marshall Islands • Political control of Micronesia has shifted numerous times during the last two centuries Spanish (1526~1885) Independence (1990s) WWI WWII

  42. Geopolitical tensions Native Rights in Australia and New Zealand • General trends are to acknowledge the land rights of indigenous people • Establishment of Aboriginal reserves • Native Title Bill (1993)

  43. Geopolitical tensions Ethnic tension in Fiji • The populations of indigenous Fijians and South Asian immigrants are roughly equal • The violation of democratic process by the Fijians (eg. military coup in the late 1980s and 2000)

  44. Geopolitical tensions Rebellion in Papua New Guinea • Resource-rich Bougainville’s indigenous inhabitants demand local control • Suppressed by military force

  45. Geopolitical tensions

  46. Economic and Social Development A Hard Path to Paradise

  47. Wealthy Australia, New Zealand, French territories • Impoverished remainders

  48. Economy of Australia and New Zealand • Economic assets • Highly educated population • Diverse base of natural resources • Modern urban and industrial infrastructure • Challenges • Dependence on extraction of raw materials • Small domestic markets • Lack of high-tech and IT industries •  Efforts to diversify economic bases

  49. Economy of Australia and New Zealand – economic diversification • Moving away from the traditional extractive economies (eg. tourism) • Promoting economic integration within the region • CER (Closer Economic Relationship) Agreement • Shifting away from Europe and North America in favor of closer links with Asia • Recent immigration policy • ARF (ASEAN Regional Forum) • APEC (Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Group)

  50. Global trade in Australia and New Zealand