Learning objectives: • After completing this session, the participant will be able to: • *Identify foods most likely to become contaminated • *Explain the difference between clean and sanitized • *Verbalize and demonstrate proper hand washing techniques • *Explain the importance of controlling time and temperature • *State how food becomes contaminated • *Name 1 factor needed for bacteria to grow
Food Safety: • Importance of food safety: • *Serving safe food is important for health as well as financial reasons • *Food safety directly affects you, your co-workers, your customers, and the food service operation itself • *Although serving safe food takes a little extra time and effort, it is part of being a professional
Food Safety: • Foodborne Illness: • *Foodborne illness is a disease that is carried or transmitted to human beings by food • *Foodborne illness may be caused by microorganisms, which are tiny, single-celled organisms, such as bacteria • *Under the proper conditions, bacteria can grow, divide, and multiply enough to make people sick. This means that the food is contaminated • *Allowing food to remain in the temperature danger zone, 40 degrees F-140 degrees F (4.4 degrees C-60 degrees C) for 4 hours or more provides conditions favorable for growth of bacteria and cause illness.
Food most likely to become contaminated: • *Moist, high protein foods on which bacteria can grow most easily are classified as Potentially Hazardous Foods • *The four categories of potentially hazardous foods are: fresh meat, such as beef or pork; poultry, such as chicken or turkey; seafood or fish; and dairy products, such as milk and cheese
How food becomes unsafe: • *Contamination is the unintended presence of harmful substances or microorganisms in food. There are three main types of hazards • Biological Hazards: Bacteria, viruses, parasites, and fungi. Contamination by bacteria is the greatest threat to food safety. • Chemical Hazards: Pesticides, food additives, cleaning supplies • Physical Hazards: Foreign matter such as dirt, broken glass and crockery, and other objects that accidentally get into food.
Cross-contamination is the transfer of harmful substances or micro-organisms to food. Cross-contamination occurs when: 1. Hands touch raw foods and then touch cooked or ready-to-eat foods 2. Food-contact surfaces touch raw foods, are not cleaned and sanitized, and the touch food that is ready-to-eat 3. Cleaning clothes and sponges touch raw food, equipment, or utensils; are not cleaned and santizized; and are then used on surfaces, equipment, and utensils, for ready- to-eat foods 4. Raw or contaminated foods that touch or drip fluids on cooked or ready-to-eat foods .
Clean vs. Sanitary • *Clean means free of visible soil • *Sanitary means free of harmful levels of disease causing micro-organisms and other harmful contaminants • *Sanitation is the creation and maintenance of healthful or hygienic conditions • *Sanitization is the use of heat or chemicals to destroy 99.999% of the disease causing micro-organisms on a food contact surface
Factors most often named in Foodborne Outbreaks: • * Failure to properly cool food. This is the leading cause of foodborne outbreaks • *Failure to thoroughly heat or cook food to a temperature which kills bacteria • *Infected employees who practice poor personal hygiene at home and at work • *Preparing food a day or more in advance of being served • *Raw food is mixed with food that has already been cooked • *Allowing foods to stay for too long at temperatures that favor bacterial growth • * Failure to reheat cooked foods to temperatures that kill bacteria • *Cross-contamination of cooked food by raw food • *Inadequate cleaning of equipment
Types of Foodborne Illness: • Salmonella: • Symptoms- Abdominal pain, headache, nausea, vomiting, fever, and diarrhea • Source- Domestic and wild animals, also human beings • Food involved- Poultry and poultry salads, meat and meat products, milk, shell eggs, and other protein foods
Types of Foodborne Illness: • Shigella: • Symptoms- Fever, chills, diarrhea, and dehydration • Source- Human beings (intestinal tract), flies • Food Involved- Potatoes, tuna, shrimp, turkey, and macaroni salad, lettuce • Staphylococcus: • Symptoms- Nausea, vomiting, dehyrdration • Source- Human beings (skin, nose, throat, infected sores), also animals
Types of Foodborne Illness: • E. coli: • Symptoms- Diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting occasional fever • Source- Animals, particularly cattle, human beings (intestinal tract) • Food involved- Raw and undercooked ground beef and other red meats, imported cheese, unpasteurized milk
Hepatitis A is a contagious viral disease, which causes inflammation of the liver. These microorganisms contaminate food through poor personal hygiene by food handlers, contaminated water supplies, or shellfish taken from sewage-contaminated water. The best defense against foodborne viruses is to use good personal hygiene
Personal Hygiene: • *Personal hygiene is the way a person maintains their health, appearance, and cleanliness • *Good personal hygiene can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases and foodborne illness • *Frequent and thorough hand washing is the most critical aspect of personal cleanliness. Dirty hands and fingernails can contaminate food products • ALWAYS WASH YOUR HANDS BEFORE: • *beginning work • *Putting on a new pair of gloves
ALWAYS WASH YOUR HANDS AFTER: *Using the restroom *Handling raw foods *Touching your hair, face, or body *Eating or drinking *Sneezing or coughing *Cleaning *Taking out the garbage *Touching anything that may contaminate your hands
GOOD PERSONAL HYGIENE ALSO INCLUDES THE FOLLOWING: *Keep nails short and clean *Cover all cuts and sores with bandages and plastic gloves *Wash your hands before putting on gloves and changing gloves *Wash your hair and bathe daily *Wear a clean uniform and apron. Work clothes should be worn only on the job, not for personal use *Wear hair restraints *Do not wear excessive jewelry to work. It is hard to clean. It can also fall off and get lost in food.
Personal hygiene and food safety quiz: • 1. True or False: Foodborne illness is a disease that is carried or transmitted to human beings by food • 2. True or False: Clean and sanitary mean the same thing • 3. True or False: Raw food should never be mixed with food that has already been cooked
CIRCLE THE CORRECT ANSWER 4. Sanitary means: A. Free of visible soil B. Coated with disinfectant C. Washed by a chemical solution D. Free of harmful levels of contamination 5. Personal hygiene is A. The spread of bacteria B. Reporting an illness to your supervisor C. The way a person maintains their health, appearance, and cleanliness D. Using a hand sanitizer
TRUE OR FALSE: 6. You do have to wash your hands before putting on a pair of gloves 7. The temperature danger zone for potentially hazardous foods is 40 degrees F-120 degrees F CIRCLE THE CORRECT ANSWER 8. When a person washes their hands they should also wash their: A. Gloves B. Elbows C. Face D Lower arms up to the elbows
9. Name 2 illnesses employees MUST report to their supervisors 10. List 3 examples of when an employee should wash their hands