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Syllabus Notes 9-6-06
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  1. Syllabus Notes 9-6-06 2.1.1 State that the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. 2.1.2 State that a variety of other elements are needed by living organisms including nitrogen, calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium. 2.1.3 State one role for each of the elements mentioned in 2.1.2. (leave room) N  protein, and nucleic acids (DNA), makes stuff POLAR. Ca  bones and muscle contraction P  used in DNA and RNA Fe  bonds to oxygen in blood Na  maintains water balance 2.1.4 Outline the difference between an atom and an ion. Refer to the roles in both plants and animals. (leave room) Ions are charged atoms. Atoms make molecules. Ions (because they are charged, drive ‘movement’ reactions – getting things into or out of the cell)

  2. 9-7-06 2.1.5 Outline the properties of water that are significant to living organisms including transparency, cohesion, solvent properties and thermal properties. • Refer to the polarity of water molecules and hydrogen bonding where relevant. Water is a polar molecule (a molecule that acts like it has a charge). Polar molecules have hydrogen bonding –molecules attract other polar molecules. Because of hydrogen bonding: • Universal solvent (dissolves charged things) • It is cohesive and adhesive, has surface tension, • Takes a lot of energy to change the temperature –high heat of vaporization and specific heat. • Expands when it freezes • It is transparent

  3. 9-11-06 • 2.1.6 Explain the significance to organisms of water as a coolant, transport medium and habitat, in terms of its properties. • Because water is polar and forms hydrogen bonds, it is an effective coolant: when it evaporates, it takes a lot of heat-energy from the body. • Large component of blood • Lakes and rivers… transparent so that plants can get sunlight etc… • Note: Polar molecules love polar/charged things. NON-polar molecules HATE/repel polar or charged things

  4. Mini-activity (put the results in your notes…) • Pour a bit of milk into the dish on your lab table • Put 2 drops of food coloring on top of the milk • Put 1 drop of soap in the center of the milk. • Watch carefully and describe what happens. • Draw the initial reaction. • Explain the reaction as best as you can in terms of polar and non-polar. (FYI: one end of soap is polar and one end is non-polar.) • Clean up! Wash your hands!

  5. 9-12-06 2.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids and Proteins (4h) • 2.2.1 Define Organic • Compounds containing carbon that are found in living organisms (except hydrogencarbonates (CH4 or C2H4), carbonates and oxides of carbon CO2)) are regarded as organic. • 2.2.2 Draw the basic structure of a generalized amino acid.

  6. 9-13-06 2.2.3 Draw the ring structure of glucose and ribose. Glucose (6 carbon ring) Ribose (5 carbon ring) NOTE: Sometimes the ‘c’ for carbon is not shown… a ‘bend’ in the ring is all you get to imply carbon…

  7. 9-14-06 2.2.4 Draw the structure of glycerol and a generalized fatty acid. Fatty acid glycerol

  8. 9-18-06 2.2.5 Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the relationships between 2 monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides; fatty acids, glycerol and glycerides; amino acids, dipeptides and polypeptides. • Condensation: connects monomers by taking water out… (dehydration synthesis.) So: • connect 2 monosaccharides to make a disaccharide. Connect more to make a polysaccharide… • Connect fatty acids and glycerol to make triglycerides • Connect amino acids to make dipeptides and polypeptides Hydrolysis reverses all of the above

  9. 9-19-06 2.2.6 Draw the structure of a generalized dipeptide, showing the peptide linkage. 2.2.7 List two examples for each of monosaccharides, disaccharides and 1 polysaccharides. Mono: glucose, fructose, ribose, deoxyribose Di: maltose, lactose, sucrose (table sugar) Poly: starch, cellulose, glycogen (animal storage in liver) OH

  10. 9-21-06 2.2.8 State one function of a monosaccharide and one function of a polysaccharide.Mono: mainly used as an energy source. Remember! A mono has 6 or fewer ‘C’ and equal ‘O’! Glucose is C6H12O6. Polysaccharides are energy storage (glycogen and starch) or STRUCTURE (cellulose = wood)2.2.9 State three functions of lipids.Hormones (steroids!), cell membranes (phospholipids), energy storage (triglycerides) ‘fat’.

  11. 9-26-06 2.3 Enzymes (new section of topic 2!) • 2.3.1 Define enzymeand active site. • They are catalysts. (They speed up reactions that would normally happen anyway.) • They do not use energy to work. • They do not get used up. They do not change • Substrates are what the enzymes work on. • Lactase works on lactose substrate. • Protease works on protein substrate. • Lipase works on lipid substrate. • Enzymes bind to their substrate at the active site

  12. 9-27-06 • 2.3.2 Explain enzyme–substrate specificity. • Enzymes are proteins. • They MAKE or BREAK stuff generally. • The long chain of amino acids fold into a specific shape. (FYI: Change one amino acid? Primary, secondary, and tertiary structure all change… the function could change too!) • This 3D shape of the enzyme fits its substrate EXACTLY. Just like a lock fits only one key. (Lock and key model.) • 2.3.3 Explain the effects of temperature, pH and substrate concentration on enzyme activity. • Each enzyme has an optimal temperature and pH: add temperature, and the enzyme will speed up until it DENATURES. Cool and it slows… • Add substrate, and the reaction increases until all of the enzymes have full active sites…

  13. Illustrate enzyme-substrate reactions. • A) Use cartoons to show anabolic reactions (making reactions) and catabolic reactions (breaking reactions.) 2. Similes –in groups of 2, give a simile of each A) Enzymes are like: B) Active Sites are like: C) Temperature affects enzymes like: D) pH affects enzymes like: E) A substrate is like:

  14. 9-28-06 • 2.3.4 Define denaturation. • Denaturation—a structural change in a protein that results in a loss (usually permanent) of its biological properties. (It loses its 3D shape.) • 2.3.5 Explain the use of pectinase in fruit juice production, and one other 3 commercial application of enzymes in biotechnology. • enzymes in laundry soap (era, tide, clorox 2) • Pectinase: used to make fruit juice (pectin holds cell walls together in plants. With pectinase, you get clear juice and more of it…) • Meat tenderizer • Cut DNA to make DNA ‘fingerprints’ • Lactaid is a commercial-product enzyme that turns each milk disaccharide into two monosaccharides