MAO AND CHINA Prescribed Subject 2 - The emergence and development of the People’s Republic of China (PRC), 1946 TO 1964 This prescribed subject addresses internal issues in China between 1946 and 1964 and pays particular attention to the role of Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) in the emergence and development of the People’s Republic of China. Areas on which source-based question(s) will focus: ·The Chinese Civil War ·Political unification, consolidation of power, economic reconstruction, social reform ·The first Five Year Plan ·Mass campaigns: 3 and 5 Antis, Hundred Flowers Campaign ·The Great Leap Forward:
Radicalization of politics Qing “Manchu” Dynasty Reformers Nationalism?
The Revolution of 1911 1911, Wuchang Uprising Qing “Manchu”dynasty was overthrown 1912, China became a republic
The War Lord Era in China 1916-1928 War Lords Li Yuanbong Zhang Zuolin Yan Xishan Feng Yuxiang
THE CHINESE CIVIL WAR • Dr. Sun Yat-sen1866-1925Founder of the Kuomintang (1912) • 1st President of the Republic of China • Founder of the Nationalist Party, Guo Min Dang (GMD) • The Three Principles of the People • Nationalism • people’s rights • people’s livelihood Kuomintang symbol
Republic of China: Weaknesses • Disunity • Local warlords fought Kuomintang for control • Wars raged between 1912 and 1928 • Foreign imperialists • Americans, Europeans, and Japanese • Poor transportation • 1914 – only 6,000 miles of railroad track • 225,000 miles in the smaller United States • Few decent roads
Foreign Imperialists • Twenty-One Demands (1915) • Japan attempted to make China a Japanese protectorate • Action condemned and stopped by other leading world powers • World War I and the Treaty of Versailles • China attempted to abolish concessions and extraterritoriality • Attempt failed • China did not sign the Treaty of Versailles • Japan gained mandate over most of Germany’s Asian possessions and rights
May 4th Movement • On May 4th 1919 demonstrations broke out in many Chinese cities and people of all classes protested. • Joined parties like the Guo Min Dang (GMD) also known as the Kuomintang (KMT), and a newly formed communist party. Boycott Japanese products Demand release of arrested students Workers and merchants joined in protests from Shanghai and Nanjing, toParisand California.
New Political Parties Nationalist Party (GMD) was established by Sun Yat-Sen Chiang Kai-Shek was the military leader Communist Party was established in 1921 Mao Ze Dong was one of its founding members
Chinese Civil War • Sun Yat Sen seen here on a fundraising tour in the USA to obtain aid from the Western democracies were fruitless
Growth of Communism in China • Sun Yat-Sen then appealed for Russian (Soviet) aid 1921-1925 China received advisors, arms, communist propaganda, and loans • Russia revoked its imperialist rights in China • The CCP was still small at the time, having a membership of just 300 in 1921 and only 1,500 by 1925. By contrast, the Kuomintang in 1922 already had 150,000 members • 1923 Chiang Kai-shek, spent several months' in military and political study in Moscow. After Chiang's return in late 1923, he participated in the establishment of the Whampoa Military Academy outside Guangzhou, which was the seat of government under the Kuomintang-CCP alliance.
Unfortunately Sun died in 1925 before his plans could come to fruition. His funeral train is seen with his picture on the front.
Kuomintang • (KMT), Chinese and Taiwanese political party under the nominal leadership of Sun Yat-sen, to succeed the Warlord era. The original Kuomintang program called for parliamentary democracy and moderate socialism.
Chinese Civil War • Sun’s brother in law and leader of the new army Chiang Kai Shek quickly took command and established himself as leader moving against the War Lords in the successful Great Northern Expedition.
Chiang Kai Shek’ s Northern Expedition GMD & CCP merged in 1925 to drive out the warlords. split in 1927 CCP was decimated
Chinese Civil War • The success of the Northern Expedition surprised everyone as many of the Warlords were defeated some made peace with the GMD. The march to Shanghai became a triumphal parade but left Chiang with a problem. He did not want to share power with his Communist allies (Soviet Union), preferring the capitalist way of development which would ensure close ties with the USA. • He decided therefore to end the United Front which had been so successful in defeating the Warlords and to eliminate his communist allies. A bloody purge (Night of the Long Knives) of the communists followed in Shanghai and in Guangzhou. • The massacre was successful and left Chiang free to march on Beijing and establish himself as China’s first strong ruler since 1911. He would be in a position to carry out Sun Yat sen’s programme of modernisation of a united country.
Chinese Civil War China soon came to know him as the ruler of the country. He liked to be called the Generalissimo. He was able to modernise China as the electric cables for street cars shown in this picture demonstrate. Generally cities, particularly Shanghai, made great progress, even in the harsh economic climate of the 1930’s Great Depression.
The cheongsam (body hugging dress for women) became very fashionable as foot binding was finally eradicated as a custom.
Some people became very rich……..While others remained desperately poor.
Chinese Civil War Some communists escaped the purges like Mao and Zhou and took communism to the country side, starting the civil wars again. Revolutionary bases set up in Jiangxi Province
Chinese Civil War The Encirclement Campaigns by the Nationalists drove the communists to escape in the Long March. Mao is seen here with his second wife who accompanied him on the march.
Chinese Civil War With the outbreak of WWII the Japanese posed an even bigger threat, taking Manchuria and putting Pu Yi on the throne as a puppet. After 1937 they invaded and conquered the rich coastal plains and cities of China in a brilliantly successful but brutal campaign, culminating in the massacre at Nanjing where 300,000 civilians were slaughtered in an orgy of rape, pillage and execution. It then became Chiang Kai Shek’s turn to flee to the interior of China and resist as best he could in Chung king until the Americans arrived with help. Basically stops fighting waiting for US to win the war. Victorious Japanese Troops at Shanghai
World War II Japan was a threat to China – 1894-1941 1937 – Japanese invasion Japanese took control of north and areas along the coast Rape of Nanking Chinese Communists and Nationalists Intermittently were at peace as they united to fight against the Japanese Guerrilla and scorched earth tactics Received American aid against the Japanese
Chinese Civil War Chinese refugees flee to the interior
By 1941 the world was at war and China found a great ally in America who sent men and huge quantities of supplies. America also tried to bring the ever distrustful Nationalists and Communists together. Chiang Kai Shek with General “vinegar Joe” Stillwell
Chinese Civil War But with the Japanese defeated, the Civil War (1946-49) began again. Here a suspected communist is lead off to execution.
Chinese Civil War The Communists had the best leaders, the best general Zhu De and the best tactics. America became disillusioned with the corruption of Chiang’s regime and withdrew support. Popular support for the communists among the peasants proved decisive and Chiang fled to Taiwan to set up his Republic of China.
Chinese Civil War The People’s Republic of China is declared. The Chinese have their first strong government for over a century.
Chinese Civil War It’s time for the Foreign Devils to go home. They had started the turmoil and the fall of the Empire a 100 years before after the first Opium War. Here they are seen escaping Shanghai as refugees from the advancing Red Army, the People’s Liberation Army. There would be no more unequal treaties.
THE CHINESE CIVIL WAR • Mao Tse-tung(Mao Zedong)1893-1976Leader of the PRC
Marx, Lenin & Mao Mao takes Marx’s theory and instead of workers rising up, Mao uses the peasants to start his revolution.
China’s Foreign Relations under Mao • Russia (Soviet Union) • Growing split between USSR and China • “Peaceful coexistence” policy of USSR viewed as surrender • 1960 – end of Soviet economic aid • Tibet • Seized in 1962 • Korea • Aided North Korea in the Korean War (1950-1953) • Vietnam • Supported North Vietnam and aided Viet Cong during Vietnam War (1959-1975)
China’s Foreign Relations under Mao • Cold War • Economic aid to Africa, Asia, and Latin America • “Atomic Club” (1964) • Fifth overall, and first non-white, country to develop nuclear weapons • United Nations • One of five permanent members of U.N. Security Council (1971, replacing Taiwan) • Relations with United States • 1972 – U.S. President Richard Nixon opened diplomatic relations with China
3 ANTI (Antis) CAMPAIGN 1951-52 • The “three-anti” (san fan) campaign was largely aimed at removing corrupt cadres(officials) and targeted corruption, waste, and “bureaucratism” among officials. The CCP leadership was concerned about this given the large number of GMD officials who had kept their posts following the establishment of the PRC. About 10% of officials were sacked and others were heavily fined but their treatment was mild compared to the Campaign Against Counter-revolutionaries in which perhaps 750,000 people were executed
5 Anti (Antis) Campaign 1951-52 • The wu fan or “five-antis” campaign, which targeted bribery, tax evasion, fraud, theft of government property and of economic secrets, was used to reduce the independence of the “national” bourgeoisie. They were now subjected to tighter government supervision. 75% of all businesses were fined as a result of the “five antis” campaign. In the early 1950s, the three-anti/five-anti campaigns brought an end to private ownership of land, and further purged many people the CPC deemed to be landlords and capitalists.
China and the First Five Year Plan 1953 • The Five Year Plan was an attempt by China to boost her industry and set her on the path to become a world class power. When Mao came to power in 1949, China was many years behind the industrial nations of the world. Mao wanted this to change. • On an international level, Mao’s China had the same status as Stalin’s Russia. Communism was feared throughout the western world and here was the world’s most populated nation turning to communism. • The only country who would want a treaty with China was the Soviet Union. In December 1949, Mao met Stalin in Moscow. They signed the Treaty of Friendship, Alliance and Mutual Assistance. This treaty gave China money and technical assistance to modernize her industry. Though the money received from Russia was minimal ($300 million over five years), Russia did provide 10,000 engineers to boost China’s industry and therefore her economy. • Influenced by the Russian engineers, and also by the success of Stalin’s Five Year Plans, China introduced her own Five Year Plan in 1953. Heavy industry was targeted as being in need of major reform. The Five Year Plan attempted to tackle steel, coal and iron production. As in the Russian model, each factory or mine was given a target to achieve. Failure to meet a target was the equivalent of failing your people.
Economic Changes under Mao First Five-Year Plan (1953-1957) Advances in agriculture and coal, electricity, iron, and steel production Second Five-Year Plan (1958-1962) “Great Leap Forward” China became a leading industrial country Peasants organized into communes Widespread catastrophe – famine – at least 14,000,000 deaths Propaganda Poster for the Great Leap Forward
Hundred Flowers Campaign“Let a hundredflowers bloom, let a hundred schools of thought contend.” • Campaign aimed solely at local bureaucracies for non-communist-affiliated officials to speak out about the policies and the existing problems within the central government in a manner previously considered illegal. Mao encouraged China's intellectuals to criticize the Communist Party.
Anti-Rightist Campaign • Anti-Rightist Campaign (1957+) Period of retaliation against those who criticized the Communist Party during the HundredFlowerscampaign. During this time Mao instigated his most radical political campaign, the Cultural Revolution, that brought the nation to the brink of civil war.
Great Leap Forward • The Great Leap Forward took place in 1958. The Great Leap Forward was Mao’s attempt to modernize China’s economy so that by 1988, China would have an economy that rivaled America.
Great Leap Forward • Mao had toured China and concluded that the Chinese people were capable of anything and the two primary tasks that he felt they should target was industry and agriculture. Mao announced a second Five Year Plan to last from 1958 to 1963. This plan was called the Great Leap Forward. • The Great Leap Forward planned to develop agriculture and industry. Mao believed that both had to grow to allow the other to grow. Industry could only prosper if the work force was well fed, while the agricultural workers needed industry to produce the modern tools needed for modernization. To allow for this, China was reformed into a series of communes. • The geographical size of a commune varied but most contained about 5000 families. People in a commune gave up their ownership of tools, animals etc so that everything was owned by the commune. People now worked for the commune and not for themselves. The life of an individual was controlled by the commune. Schools and nurseries were provided by the communes so that all adults could work. Health care was provided and the elderly were moved into "houses of happiness" so that they could be looked after and also so that families could work and not have to worry about leaving their elderly relatives at home.
Great Leap Forward • The commune provided all that was needed – including entertainment. Soldiers worked alongside people. The population in a commune was sub-divided. Twelve families formed a work team. Twelve work terms formed a brigade. Each sub-division was given specific work to do. Party members oversaw the work of a commune to ensure that decisions followed the correct party line. • By the end of 1958, 700 million people had been placed into 26,578 communes. The speed with which this was achieved was astounding. However, the government did all that it could to whip up enthusiasm for the communes. Propaganda was everywhere – including in the fields where the workers could listen to political speeches as they worked as the communes provided public address systems. Everybody involved in communes was urged not only to meet set targets but to beat them. If the communes lacked machinery, the workers used their bare hands. Major constructions were built in record time – though the quality of some was dubious. • The Great Leap Forward also encouraged communes to set up "back-yard" production plants. The most famous were 600,000backyard furnaces which produced steel for the communes. When all of these furnaces were working, they added a considerable amount of steel to China’s annual total – 11 million tones. • The figures for steel, coal, chemicals, timber, cement etc all showed huge rises though the figures started at in 1958 were low. Grain and cotton production also showed major increases in production. • Mao had introduced the Great Leap Forward with the phrase "it is possible to accomplish any task whatsoever." By the end of 1958, it seemed as if his claim was true.
The consequences of the Great Leap Forward • However, in 1959, things started to go wrong. Political decisions/beliefs took precedence over commonsense and communes faced the task of doing things which they were incapable of achieving. Party officials would order the impossible and commune leaders, who knew what their commune was capable of doing or not, could be charged with being a "bourgeois reactionary" if he complained. Such a charge would lead to prison • Quickly produced farm machinery produced in factories fell to pieces when used. Many thousands of workers were injured after working long hours and falling asleep at their jobs. Steel produced by the backyard furnaces was frequently too weak to be of any use and could not be used in construction – it’s original purpose. Buildings constructed by this substandard steel did not last long. • Also the backyard production method had taken many workers away from their fields – so desperately needed food was not being harvested. Ironically, one of the key factors in food production in China was the weather and 1958 had particularly good weather for growing food. Party leaders claimed that the harvest for 1958 was a record 260 million tons – which was not true.