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Chapter 42: Circulation. By Lauren Shevchek and Nonye Enogwe. Circulation…. t he continuous motion by which blood travels through all parts of the body under the action of the heart Helps with the transportation of blood throughout the body Regulates the .

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chapter 42 circulation

Chapter 42: Circulation

By Lauren Shevchek




the continuous motion by which blood travels through all parts of the body under the action of the heart

  • Helps with the transportation of blood throughout the body
  • Regulates the

Different forms of circulatory sytstems…

  • Closed circularory system
  • Open circulatory system

-Circulatory fluid (blood)

-Set of tubes (blood vessels)

-Muscular pump (heart)

  • Gastrovascular cavity
vertebrate circulatory system
Vertebrate Circulatory System
  • Blood: used to carry dissolved materials and cells
  • Blood vessels: carries materials and allows for exchange through the body
  • Heart: muscle that moves blood in a distinct direction
fish amphibians mammals
Fish Amphibians Mammals

Amphibians have a three-chambered heart and two circuits of blood flow: pulmocutaneousand systemic. With double circulation, blood is delivered to systemic organs under high pressure. There is some mixing of oxygen-rich and oxygen-poor blood within the single ventricle.

Mammals have a four-chambered heart and double circulation. Inside of the heart, oxygen-rich blood is kept separated from oxygen-poor blood.

Fish have a two-chambered heart and a single circuit of blood flow

pulmonary systemic
Pulmonary & Systemic
  • lead to capillaries in the gas-exchange organs
  • Where most of the returning oxygen-rich blood is pumped into
double circulation
Double Circulation

Advantages over single circulation

  • no mixing of the oxygenated and deoxygenated blood
  • blood is pumped to the rest of the body with a higher concentration of oxygen
cardiac cycle
Cardiac Cycle 

the alternating contractions and relaxations of the heart

  • Systole
  • Diatole
cardiac output
Cardiac Output

Main two factors

  • Heart rate
  • Stroke volume
abnormal heart
Abnormal heart

Heart Murmur:

an abnormal sound of the heart; sometimes a sign of abnormal function of the heart valves

sa node
SA Node
  • As nerves become more sympathetic, heart rate goes up and when it becomes parasympathetic the heart rate goes
  • Hormones secreted into the blood by glands influence the pacemaker like epinephrine (“fight-or-flight” hormone from the adrenal glands) which increases heart rate
  • As temperature increases, the rate of the pacemaker also increases and vise versa
  • Exercise increases heart rate, an adaptation which allows the circulatory system to provide extra oxygen needed by the muscles hard at work

a small body of specialized muscle tissue located in the wall of the right atrium of the heart that acts as a pacemaker by producing a contractile signal at regular intervals