unit ii muslim empires in the first global age n.
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Unit II: Muslim Empires in the First Global Age. Geography. -“cross-roads” of the world -“middle” only to Europeans -hot and arid. Islam. Islam Muslim Allah Quran Mosque. The Five Pillars. 1. Proclamation of Faith 2. Prayer 3. Alms 4. Ramadan 5. Hadj. Muslims at Prayer.

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-“cross-roads” of the world

-“middle” only to Europeans

-hot and arid







the five pillars
The Five Pillars

1. Proclamation of Faith

2. Prayer

3. Alms

4. Ramadan

5. Hadj

Muslims at Prayer


Tomb of the Prophet


Dome of the Rock

islamic fundamentalism
Islamic Fundamentalism

Sharia – Islamic Law

Jihad – “struggle” for Islam

Al Qaeda



why is islam perceived as violent
Why is Islam perceived as violent?






western civilization
Western Civilization

Set of ideas that most of the world appears to want; NOT a place

  • Human Rights
  • Justice
  • Democracy
  • Rationalism
  • Progress
  • Self-Examination
  • Materialism
early history of islam
Early History of Islam

c. 570: Muhammad was born in

Mecca; married Khadija

610: Muhammad was visited

by the Archangel Gabriel

622: Hegira

630: Muhammad returned to


632: Muhammad died without naming a caliph; a successor

sunni vs shia
Sunni vs. Shia

Sunni – Abu Bakr

Shia - Ali

the spread of islam
The Spread of Islam

632-732: Islam spread fast

& far; Arabian Peninsula,

North Africa, the Iberian

Peninsula, Persian,

Central Asia, & Anatolia


the battle of tours
The Battle of Tours

732: Battle of Tours

-Charles Martel led the

Franks & Lombards;

halted Muslim advance

into western Europe

Why is the battle significant?

early muslim dynasties
Early Muslim Dynasties

632 - c.750: Umayyad Dynasty

  • Arabic
  • Damascus as the capital
  • caliphate became hereditary

c.750-1258: Abbasid Dynasty

  • non-Arabic
  • Baghdad as the capital
  • “Golden Age of Islam”
  • tolerant towards other

religions & cultures

Why does tolerance often lead to prosperity?

the crusades
The Crusades

1096-1204: Crusades

  • Western attempts to

regain the holy land

  • Jerusalem Massacre
  • 4 major attempts
  • Saladin united the Arabs
  • all ultimately fail

Why are the Crusades a significant event today?

the ottoman empire
The Ottoman Empire

c.1350-1918: Ottoman Empire

1389: Battle of Kosovo

1453: Constantinople fell

1529: Siege of Vienna

c.1800: Ottomans decline

  • Wahhabism developed

Suleiman the Magnificent

the ottoman empire1
The Ottoman Empire

Major events & figures




Reasons for decline

ottoman decline
Ottoman Decline

1918: WWI Ends

  • Versailles Treaty
  • Turkey established
  • Mandates established
south asian geography
South Asian Geography
  • 3 Regions
    • Khyber Pass
  • Monsoon Cycle
south asian culture
South Asian Culture
  • Government
  • Language
  • Economy
  • Family
  • Religion
caste system
Caste System

c.1500-1000 BC: Aryans invaded

  • divided society by varna
  • evolved from skin color to occupation
  • sub-castes developed
  • Polytheistic
  • Reincarnation
  • Karma
  • Dharma
  • Ataman
  • Ahimsa

Brahman – the creator


c.600 BC: reformers tried to limit

the power of the Brahmins

c.560 BC: Siddhartha Gautama’s birth

  • “Buddha”
  • Four Noble Truths

-Eight-Fold Path


  • no priests or caste system
  • gods are not central
muslim invasions
Muslim Invasions

c. AD 1200: Muslim invasions began

  • violent invasions; Brahmins massacred & temples destroyed
  • major differences in religion
  • Islam was not absorbed
  • Sikhism developed
mughal dynasty
Mughal Dynasty

1526 - c.1750s: Babar founded

  • Delhi was the capitol
  • advanced gunpowder technology
  • Akbar the Great


-master of compromise

Shah Jahanbuilt the TajMahal

Aurangzeb, his son, ended tolerance

c.1750s: the British used divide &

conquer to defeat the Mughal

princely states