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Chapter 4: Phonology…. …not the study of telephones! NOTES: The slides/lecture/discussion for this chapter deviate from the order of the book… You WILL need to read, you decide to read early, late or both… About exercising : it keeps you healthy: physically & mentally… .

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chapter 4 phonology

Chapter 4: Phonology…

…not the study of telephones!

NOTES:

The slides/lecture/discussion for this chapter deviate from the order of the book… You WILL need to read, you decide to read early, late or both…

About exercising: it keeps you healthy: physically & mentally…

kinds of sound change
Kinds of Sound Change
  • Assimilation (become more alike)
    • Nasalization
    • Voicing
    • Flapping
  • Dissimilation (become less alike)
    • Metathesis (shift sounds around)
    • Epenthesis // Intrusion (add a sound)
  • Other
    • Elision // Deletion (take a sound away)
    • Vowel Reduction (shorten or ‘schwa’ a sound)
sound safari
Sound Safari
  • Find example words for one subcategory of each type of sound change in the previous slide
  • Hand me the examples highlighting
    • IPA for “careful” vs. “fast-casual” speech
    • Explanation of the change in terms of natural classes
    • Answer: Is the created sound always allophonic, or sometimes phonemic
phonemes
Phonemes
  • Formal Definition:Sounds that are heard distinctively by native speakers of a language
  • Dave’s Translation: Sound that make meaningful differences in a language
on being distinctive
On Being Distinctive
  • AKA Contrastive … AKA Phonemic
  • Minimal pairs
  • You tell me:
    • Standard spelling for each of the above…
    • More minimal pairs…
allophones
Allophones
  • Formal Definition:Sounds that are NOT heard distinctively by native speakers of a language
  • Dave’s Translation: Sounds that DO NOT make meaningful differences in a language
other language
Other Language:

Phonemic or allophonic?

aspiration
Aspiration
  • Hold a paper in front of your mouth
    • Say “pot” and “poke”
    • Then “spot” and “spoke”
    • Does the paper move differently?
phonemes allophones
Phonemes & Allophones
    • Minimal Pairs  phonemic distinction
  • - Allophones (in English)
    • (sit, sing)
    • Phonetically distinct, phonologically same
    • Complementary distribution
to formalize
To Formalize
  • Phoneme –Allophone Illustration

Underlying form

Surface form

in simpler words
In Simpler Words
  • A  B / X __ Y

A becomesB when it comes between X and Y

We typically use features for A, B, X and Y… For shorthand we may sometimes use segments instead…

slide15
Find a sound that either

Changes from slow to fast speech

Changes when you add a morpheme

Fill in the tree

Write the rule

/ /  [ ] / ___ ___

Now You Try It…

phonological units
Phonological Units
  • Word unit
  • Syllable u nit
  • Segment u n I t(IPA symbol)
  • Feature + vowel + nasal(Chart column/row) + high + stop … … … …
phonological units1
Phonological Units
  • Word unit
  • Syllable u nit
  • Segment [ u n I t ](IPA symbol)
  • Feature + vowel + nasal(Chart column/row) + high + stop … … … …
features
Features
  • The atoms of phonology
  • Building blocks of sound
  • Key to understanding (most) variation
  • Binary distinction (+/-)
    • You’ve either got it, or you don’t…
phonological principles
Phonological Principles
  • Ideal vs. Realization
  • Largely subconscious
  • Universals exist
  • Rule governed
    • Rules can be formalized
    • Rules can be generalized
    • Rules must be ordered…
any questions

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

natural classes
Natural Classes
  • Sounds that share feature(s) and behave similarly in phonology
    • Consonants
      • Stop -Stop
      • Voice -Voice
    • Vowels
      • High -High
      • Back - Back
natural classes answers
Natural Classes: Answers
  • Circle the ‘Natural Classes’

p t k b d g

f T s S v D z Z

tS

dZ

Find These: Stops, Alveolars, Affricates, & Velars

natural classes answers1
Natural Classes: Answers
  • Circle the ‘Natural Classes’

p t k b d g

f T s S v D z Z

tS

dZ

Stops, Alveolars,Affricates, & Velars

Challenge: Find the rest… (there are at least 12)

any questions1

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

syllable
Syllable
  • Book’s Definition:

A unit of linguistic structure that consists of a syllabic element and any segments that are associated with it

  • Dave’s Interpretation:

A potentially independent group of sounds that sticks closely together

sequence constraints
Sequence Constraints

(PhonotacticConstraints)

  • Formal Definition: The set of constraints on how sequences of segments pattern
  • Dave’s Interpretation: Rules on which sounds can be next to each other (≈ in a syllable)
sequence constraints1
Sequence Constraints
  • Different languages = Different rules
    • English
      • V, VC, CV, CVC, CCV, etc…
    • Spanish
      • Onset = [sk], [st], [sp]
    • Japanese
      • “C” as coda, except [n]
  • Explain Spanish or Japanese constraints in terms of natural classes…
don t get stressed out
Don’t Get Stressed Out…
  • Primary and Secondary Stress
    • Separate Words = Separate Stress
      • Whíte hóuse
    • Single Concept = Related Stress
      • Whíte Hòuse
    • Multi-syllable words
      • Stress varies
      • http://oak.ucc.nau.edu/tn24/wordstress/wstresstext.html
syllablabic interventions
Syllablabic Interventions…

Find rules governingvowel length

Why don’t “redo” and “debunk” follow the rule?

sentence level stress
Sentence Level Stress
  • Stress Content Words
    • N, V, Adj, Adv
  • Not function words
    • Det, Aux Vs, Conj’s, Pronouns, Prepositions
any questions2

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

try it the plural suffix
Try It: The Plural Suffix
  • Orthography: -s or -es
  • Phonetic:
  • Sort the following phonetically:
    • tack, tag, torch, cough, cup, dish, dress, grave, graph, hat, house, hunch, judge, lad, lash, lathe, maze, room, tax, thing
  • Why? (i.e. What are the rules?)
3 rules
3 Rules
  • Add plural suffix: [s]
    • Ø  s / # ___
  • Change [s] to [z]Voicing
    • s  z / C ___ # + voice
  • Change [s] to [Ez] Epenthesis
    • s Ez / C ___ #+ Affricate/Fricative + Alveolar/Alveopalatal
plural rules
Plural Rules:

What went wrong? How can we fix it?

any questions3

Any Questions…

…before we move on?

…only two slides left…

for tomorrow
For “Tomorrow”
  • Exercises
    • Be aware of these:
      • 4-1,4,8,15
    • Spend time on these
      • 4-17,18,19,20,21,22
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