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Al- Ghazzali (1058-1111). His biography. Definition. Ideas on educational practices. He resulted an education product, called “Self-examining approach”, which means. Teachers’ role and responsibility. Teachers’ role: To becomes live models for students in their words and behavior.

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ideas on educational practices
Ideas on educational practices

He resulted an education product, called “Self-examining approach”, which means

teachers role and responsibility
Teachers’ role and responsibility
  • Teachers’ role:

To becomes live models for students in their words and behavior.

  • Teachers’ responsibility:
    • Create of teaching as a value-building process.
    • Encourage the students to cultivate good behavior


1. Education involves all aspects—intellectual, religious, moral and physical—of the personality of the learner.

(see: content of the education curriculum in Indonesia)

2. It is not enough to impart theoretical learning; that learning must be put into practice.

3. True learning is that which affects behavior and whereby the learner makes practical use of his knowledge.



Prepare the service of society and bring up people with high moral standards.

Concern: Think first of the society, then people in second)

The question: how could apply the purpose?

The answer is implied in these two items:


To cultivate man so that he abides by the teachings of religion.

Second worldly goals,

To pursue wealth, social standing or power, and even the love of knowledge, are illusory, since they relate to the transient world.

(See Law 20/2003 of the National Education System & Government Regulation Nr.19/2005 as to National Standard of Education (NSE)



“To raise a generation of faithful people who would be close to God and free from conflict among one another.”

The statement sounds simple but one must take complex frame to apply in this era.



  • The strategy is for teachers:
    • Teaching is derived through the combination of theory and practice.
    • Teaching should be sensitively conducted, thus differences among ss are organized and helped to develop according to their own capacities and interest.
    • Take into account the differences in character and ability between pupils, and deal with each one of them appropriately.

(See: Need Analysis (NA) which is the basic point before one will design an instruction for teaching)



    • Teacher develops the cultural process where education vitally contributes to the future of a society in which individuals and groups grow and progress.

(See teaching techniques, assessment)




Branch of knowledge (three levels):

Elementary, intermediate and advanced (primary, secondary and higher).


He listed the books with various of sciences and subjects, that could be studied at each level of education.

his works
His works
  • Ayyuha-l-Walad [Letter to a Disciple]. Cairo, Maktabat al-Jundi, n.d. (Printed as part of a series.) (English translation and introduction by George H. Scherer, O Disciple, Beirut, Catholic Press, 1951. (UNESCO Collection of Great Works: Arabic series.)
  • Bid_yat al-Hidaya [The Beginning of Divine Guidance]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1912 ad-Durra al-FakhirafiKashf ‘Ulum
  • al-Akhira [The Precious Pearl that Unveils the Sciences of the Hereafter]. Amsterdam, Oriental Press, 1974.
  • Fada’ih al-Batiniyawa-Fada’il al-Mustazhiriya [The Infamies of the Esotericists and the Virtues of the Exotericists].Cairo, Ad-Dar al-Qaumiya, 1964. (Also called Al-Mustazhiri [The Exotericist].)
  • Faisal at-Tafriqabain al-Islam wa-z-Zandaqa [The Point of Separation between Islam and Apostasy]. Cairo, DarIhya’ al-Kutub al-‘Arabiya, 1961.
  • Fatihat al-‘Ulum [The Beginning of Sciences]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Husainiya, 1904 (A.H. 1322).
  • Ihya’ ‘Ulum ad-Din [The Revival of the Religious Sciences]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Azhariya, 1898 (A.H. 1316). 4 vols.
  • Iljam al-‘Awamm ‘an ‘Ilm al-Kalam [Restraining the Masses from Theological Disputation]. Cairo, Al-Matba‘a al-Muniriya, 1932 (A.H. 1351).
  • Al-Iqtisadfi-l-I‘tiqad [The Golden Mean in Belief]. Cairo, Maktabat as-Sa‘ada, 1909.
  • Jawahir al-Qur’an [The Jewels of the Koran]. Damascus, Al-Markaz al-‘Arabili-l-Kitab, n.d.
  • al-Kashfwa-t-TabyinfiGhurur al-KhalqAjma‘in [The Investigation and Demonstration of the Delusion of All Creatures]. Cairo, Al-Halabi, 1960.


  • Al-Ghazzali is the greatest theologian in Islam.
    • One of the philosophers who maintain education as the value-building process.
    • Process of his own spiritual and intellectual growth relate one to another.

Of the relation, his experience on the process of spiritual really works on resulting ideas on the way one should better take before applying the education.

  • Nunan, D. 1998. Syllabus Design. Oxford University Press. New York.
  • Palmer, A. J. et al. 2001. Fifty Major Thinkers on Edcation. From Confucius to Dewey. London and New York.
  • Pidarta, M. 2007. LandasanKependidikan: stimulus ilmupendidikanbercorak Indonesia – Ed.2. RinekaCipta. Jakarta.
  • Tim PenyusunKamusPusatPembinaandanPengembanganBahasa. 1991. KamusBesarBahasa Indonesia. Edisikedua. BalaiPustaka. Jakarta.
  • UNESCO: International Bureau of Education. 2000. AL-GHAZALI (A.D. 1058-1111; A.H. 450-505) NabilNofal. Prospects: the quarterly review of comparative education. Paris, UNESCO: International Bureau of Education. Vol. XXIII, no. 3/4, 1993, p. 519-542.