KALAM Cosmological Argument. Did the universe begin to exist, and if so what caused it?. Defenders. John Philoponus (circa AD 580) Al-Ghazali (AD 1058-1111) William Lane Craig (present). KCA. Argument: Everything that begins to exists has a cause. The universe began to exist.
Did the universe begin to exist, and if so what caused it?
The premises are supported by both philosophical and scientific arguments
Potential infinite ∞
It is said that an argument is what convinces reasonable men and a proof is what it takes to convince even and an unreasonable man. With the proof now in place, cosmologists can no longer hide behind the possibility of a past-eternal universe. There is no escape; they have to face the problem of a cosmic beginning.
We should observe a small universe: Our visible universe is larger than required for our existence.
Boltzmann Brain: The smallest observable universe is a brain that by chance appears from the collision of atoms, observes and then disappears.
Steady State: Creation of Helium, Background radiation
Oscillating: Disorder is carried over between oscillations, when matter nears collapse point it most probably causes a singularity, Observations show that the current universe will not collapse but expand forever.
Bubble Universes: our universe is just a bubble in a much larger “multiverse” of bubble universes. BVG theorem says that the multiverse as a whole must have a beginning.
Baby Universes: Black holes are tunnels through to new baby universes. The battery running down still applies and in addition Hawking radiation shows that the hypothesis is incorrect.
Swinburne - two type of causal explanations:
Why is the kettle boiling?
Abstract objects or unembodied minds
Abstract objects don’t stand in causal relations.
Ghazali: If the cause is sufficient to produce its effect, then if the cause is present then the effect MUST be present too.
Minds have freedom of the will.
There are very good grounds to believe that the cause of the universe was God.
“In the beginning, God created the heavens and the earth” (Genesis 1:1)
Something must be eternal and uncaused.
It is either God or the universe.
And it ain’t the universe.
Don’t get bogged down in the science.
The scientific objections can snowball.
Vacuum Fluctuation: Given an infinite past all possibilities would occurred, hence we should be observing an infinitely old universe.
Quantum Gravity: Still has a beginning
String Scenarios: Given an infinite past all possibilities would occurred, hence we should be observing an infinitely old universe.BVG theorem extended to higher dimension cosmology