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FEUDAL JAPAN. Essential Question : What were the characteristics and causes of Japanese feudalism?. PART I: EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF JAPAN. Geography of Japan. Japan is part of the continent of Asia ; Japan is a series of islands near the coasts of Korea and China .

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FEUDAL JAPAN


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    1. FEUDAL JAPAN

    2. Essential Question: What were the characteristics and causes of Japanese feudalism?

    3. PART I: EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF JAPAN

    4. Geography of Japan Japan is part of the continent of Asia; Japan is a series of islands near the coasts of Korea and China

    5. Similar to Greece, Japan was divided by mountains and had few areas for farming

    6. Before 400 CE, Japan was not a unified nation but was ruled by hundreds of different family clans

    7. Geography of Japan …but Japan was close enough to borrow cultural ideas from China Japan’s island location provided protection from potential Chinese and Mongol invasions…

    8. Japan’s isolation gave rise to a unique culture; this culture produced the Shinto religion

    9. Shinto is a polytheistic religion based on the respect of nature and ancestor worship

    10. Shinto is a polytheistic religion based on the respect of nature and ancestor worship

    11. Shinto worshippers believe in divine spirits called kami that live in nature; they build shrines devoted to nature called “torii”

    12. Shinto worshippers believe in divine spirits called kami that live in nature; they build shrines devoted to nature called “torii”

    13. Shinto worshippers believe in divine spirits called kami that live in nature; they build shrines devoted to nature called “torii”

    14. Shinto worshippers believe in divine spirits called kami that live in nature; they build shrines devoted to nature called “torii”

    15. The most important of the Shinto gods is the sun goddess who gave light to the world Amaterasu: Sun Goddess

    16. As Japan had more contact with Asia, it adopted Chinese culture and ideas; some ideas were adopted successfully, others were not For example, Japan tried, but failed, to model the Chinese examination system for government officials

    17. Japan adopted the Chinese idea of an emperor and rule by dynasties; the first Japanese emperor was said to have descended from the sun goddess Unlike China, Japanese emperors often did not have ultimate power over the various clan leaders; Japan often had an emperor figurehead who served as a symbol of power and clan rulers with true power

    18. Japan adopted Confucianism and blended Chinese styles of writing, architecture, and art

    19. Which is Chinese and which is Japanese? Chinese writing Japanese writing

    20. Which is Chinese and which is Japanese? Japanese landscape art Chinese landscape art

    21. Which is Chinese and which is Japanese? Japanese architecture Chinese architecture

    22. In the mid-700s, Buddhism was introduced in Japan, spreading from China and Korea

    23. Buddhism was accepted by Japanese emperors, but in common Japanese society, the two religions, Buddhism and Shinto, blended This combination of Buddhism and Shinto is an excellent example of religious syncretism (mixing of religious beliefs) This new religion was called Zen Buddhism

    24. Classical Japan during the Heian Period From the year 794 CE to the year 1185 CE, Japan entered a classical era during the Heian Period • ? During this time, the imperial government was strong and Japan experienced an era of peace and prosperity

    25. Classical Japan during the Heian Period As it was with numerous other societies during times of peace and stability, Japan developed a “golden age” in poetry, art, and literature during the Heian Period

    26. PART II: JAPANESE FEUDALISM

    27. Japanese Feudalism By the mid-1000s, the imperial government grew weak, regional landowners gained power, and Japan became lawless and dangerous

    28. Japanese Feudalism Outlaws attacked farmers and pirates attacked the coast Rival clans competed for power and threw Japan into a series of civil wars As a result, Japan developed a feudal system

    29. Japanese Feudalism Farmers traded land to strong warlords called daimyo, who offered protection in exchange for land Daimyo were served by loyal warriors called samurai The emperor had little real power

    30. Japanese Feudalism Samurai warriors lived by a code called Bushido which demanded courage, loyalty, sacrifice, fairness, and honor Samurai were highly skilled swordsmen, but also used horses and guns (after the arrival of Europeans in Japan)

    31. Japanese Feudalism Samurai warriors were usually relatives or dependents of daimyo, although some were hired warriors called “Ronin” The most powerful daimyo was the overall military leader of Japan and held the title of “Shogun”

    32. Japanese Feudalism In 1192, the first shogun was named by the emperor • Text The emperor remained in place, but the shogun held real power and ruled as military dictator Shoguns’ power varied over time, but the pattern of government controlled by a shogun lasted until 1867

    33. A COMPARISON: JAPAN and EUROPE Who were the military leaders, landowners, and warriors in medieval Europe and feudal Japan? • How were they alike? • How were they different?

    34. Quick Class Discussion:Based on these images, how were Japanese and European feudal systems similar?

    35. Essential Question: What roles did Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, play in unifying Japan?

    36. PART III: THETHREE UNIFIERS OF JAPAN

    37. From 1560 to 1600, three powerful daimyo, known as the three unifiers, began to restore order and unify Japan Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu

    38. From 1560 to 1600, three powerful daimyo, known as the three unifiers, began to restore order and unify Japan Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu In 1568, a brutal daimyo named Oda Nobunaga conquered the Japanese capital of Kyoto Oda seized power by force, was the first to use guns effectively, and eliminated Buddhist rivals that refused to accept rule by the emperor By the time of his death in 1582, Japan was not unified

    39. From 1560 to 1600, three powerful daimyo, known as the three unifiers, began to restore order and unify Japan Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu Oda Nobunaga’s best general was Toyotomi Hideyoshi who took over after Oda’s death Toyotomi was resourceful and not ruthless like Oda; he used political alliances, adoption, and marriage to gain power over the daimyo By 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi controlled most of Japan and tried unsuccessfully to conquer Korea

    40. From 1560 to 1600, three powerful daimyo, known as the three unifiers, began to restore order and unify Japan Oda Nobunaga Toyotomi Hideyoshi Tokugawa Ieyasu After Toyotomi’s death in 1598, one of his daimyo allies named Tokugawa Ieyasu completed the unification of Japan in 1600 In 1603, Tokugawa became shogun of Japan, moved to capital to Edo (later called Tokyo), and restored government and order to Japan Tokugawa ruled until 1615, but he created a line of succession called the Tokugawa Shogunate that ruled Japan until 1867

    41. THE TOKUGAWA SHOGUNATE

    42. Tokugawa Shogunate During this time, Japan benefited from peace; the economy boomed and became more commercial For more than 250 years, Tokugawa’ssuccessors ruled Japan as shoguns

    43. Tokugawa Shogunate Tokugawa enjoyed trade with Europeans and was fascinated to learn about their military, new technologies, andideas European merchants and missionaries first arrived in Japan in the mid-1500s

    44. Tokugawa Shogunate Between 1549 and 1600, European missionaries had converted 300,000 Japanese to Christianity This upset Tokugawa because the missionaries ignored Japanese cultural beliefs and laws In 1612, Tokugawa banned Christianity and began ruthlessly persecuting Christians All Japanese were forced to be faithful to Buddhism Execution of Christians

    45. JAPANESE ISOLATIONISM

    46. Japanese Isolationism Tokugawa shoguns decided to exclude foreign merchants and missionaries By 1639, Japan adopted a “closed country policy” and ended almost all foreign contacts

    47. Nagasaki Bay Deshima Dutch ships Japan One Japanese port at Deshima in Nagasaki Bay remained open, but ONLY to Dutch and Chinese merchants

    48. Japanese isolation remained in place for over 200 years until the 1850s

    49. During this era of isolation, Japan had some profitable trade, but mainly became self-sufficient, limited foreign ideas, and reduced Europe’s ability to colonize Japan

    50. COMPARING EMPERORS Who was the best emperor? • Use your notes to complete the chart • When finished, rank the order of the emperors from best to worst • Write a comment about who is the best emperor and give reasons why