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FEUDAL JAPAN. Essential Question : What were the characteristics and causes of Japanese feudalism?. PART I: EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF JAPAN. Geography of Japan. Japan is part of the continent of Asia ; Japan is a series of islands near the coasts of Korea and China .

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Presentation Transcript
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Essential Question:

What were the characteristics and causes of Japanese feudalism?

slide3
PART I:

EARLY DEVELOPMENT OF JAPAN

geography of japan
Geography of Japan

Japan is part of the continent of Asia; Japan is a series of islands near the coasts of Korea and China

geography of japan1
Geography of Japan

…but Japan was close enough to borrow cultural ideas from China

Japan’s island location provided protection from potential Chinese and Mongol invasions…

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Japan’s isolation gave rise to a unique culture; this culture produced the Shinto religion

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Shinto worshippers believe in divine spirits called kami that live in nature; they build shrines devoted to nature called “torii”

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Shinto worshippers believe in divine spirits called kami that live in nature; they build shrines devoted to nature called “torii”

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Shinto worshippers believe in divine spirits called kami that live in nature; they build shrines devoted to nature called “torii”

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Shinto worshippers believe in divine spirits called kami that live in nature; they build shrines devoted to nature called “torii”

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The most important of the Shinto gods is the sun goddess who gave light to the world

Amaterasu: Sun Goddess

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As Japan had more contact with Asia, it adopted Chinese culture and ideas; some ideas were adopted successfully, others were not

For example, Japan tried, but failed, to model the Chinese examination system for government officials

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Japan adopted the Chinese idea of an emperor and rule by dynasties; the first Japanese emperor was said to have descended from the sun goddess

Unlike China, Japanese emperors often did not have ultimate power over the various clan leaders; Japan often had an emperor figurehead who served as a symbol of power and clan rulers with true power

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Which is Chinese and which is Japanese?

Chinese writing

Japanese writing

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Which is Chinese and which is Japanese?

Japanese landscape art

Chinese landscape art

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Which is Chinese and which is Japanese?

Japanese architecture

Chinese architecture

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Buddhism was accepted by Japanese emperors, but in common Japanese society, the two religions, Buddhism and Shinto, blended

This combination of Buddhism and Shinto is an excellent example of religious syncretism (mixing of religious beliefs)

This new religion was called Zen Buddhism

classical japan during the heian period
Classical Japan during the Heian Period

From the year 794 CE to the year 1185 CE, Japan entered a classical era during the Heian Period

  • ?

During this time, the imperial government was strong and Japan experienced an era of peace and prosperity

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Classical Japan during the Heian Period

As it was with numerous other societies during times of peace and stability, Japan developed a “golden age” in poetry, art, and literature during the Heian Period

japanese feudalism
Japanese Feudalism

By the mid-1000s, the imperial government grew weak, regional landowners gained power, and Japan became lawless and dangerous

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Japanese Feudalism

Outlaws attacked farmers and pirates attacked the coast

Rival clans competed for power and threw Japan into a series of civil wars

As a result, Japan developed a feudal system

japanese feudalism1
Japanese Feudalism

Farmers traded land to strong warlords called daimyo, who offered protection in exchange for land

Daimyo were served by loyal warriors called samurai

The emperor had little real power

japanese feudalism2
Japanese Feudalism

Samurai warriors lived by a code called Bushido which demanded courage, loyalty, sacrifice, fairness, and honor

Samurai were highly skilled swordsmen, but also used horses and guns (after the arrival of Europeans in Japan)

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Japanese Feudalism

Samurai warriors were usually relatives or dependents of daimyo, although some were hired warriors called “Ronin”

The most powerful daimyo was the overall military leader of Japan and held the title of “Shogun”

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Japanese Feudalism

In 1192, the first shogun was named by the emperor

  • Text

The emperor remained in place, but the shogun held real power and ruled as military dictator

Shoguns’ power varied over time, but the pattern of government controlled by a shogun lasted until 1867

a comparison japan and europe
A COMPARISON: JAPAN and EUROPE

Who were the military leaders, landowners, and warriors in medieval Europe and feudal Japan?

  • How were they alike?
  • How were they different?
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Quick Class Discussion:Based on these images, how were Japanese and European feudal systems similar?

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Essential Question:

What roles did Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu, play in unifying Japan?

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PART III:

THETHREE UNIFIERS OF JAPAN

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From 1560 to 1600, three powerful daimyo, known as the three unifiers, began to restore order and unify Japan

Oda Nobunaga

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Tokugawa Ieyasu

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From 1560 to 1600, three powerful daimyo, known as the three unifiers, began to restore order and unify Japan

Oda Nobunaga

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Tokugawa Ieyasu

In 1568, a brutal daimyo named Oda Nobunaga conquered the Japanese capital of Kyoto

Oda seized power by force, was the first to use guns effectively, and eliminated Buddhist rivals that refused to accept rule by the emperor

By the time of his death in 1582, Japan was not unified

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From 1560 to 1600, three powerful daimyo, known as the three unifiers, began to restore order and unify Japan

Oda Nobunaga

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Tokugawa Ieyasu

Oda Nobunaga’s best general was Toyotomi Hideyoshi who took over after Oda’s death

Toyotomi was resourceful and not ruthless like Oda; he used political alliances, adoption, and marriage to gain power over the daimyo

By 1590, Toyotomi Hideyoshi controlled most of Japan and tried unsuccessfully to conquer Korea

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From 1560 to 1600, three powerful daimyo, known as the three unifiers, began to restore order and unify Japan

Oda Nobunaga

Toyotomi Hideyoshi

Tokugawa Ieyasu

After Toyotomi’s death in 1598, one of his daimyo allies named Tokugawa Ieyasu completed the unification of Japan in 1600

In 1603, Tokugawa became shogun of Japan, moved to capital to Edo (later called Tokyo), and restored government and order to Japan

Tokugawa ruled until 1615, but he created a line of succession called the Tokugawa Shogunate that ruled Japan until 1867

tokugawa shogunate
Tokugawa Shogunate

During this time, Japan benefited from peace; the economy boomed and became more commercial

For more than 250 years, Tokugawa’ssuccessors ruled Japan as shoguns

tokugawa shogunate1
Tokugawa Shogunate

Tokugawa enjoyed trade with Europeans and was fascinated to learn about their military, new technologies, andideas

European merchants and missionaries first arrived in Japan in the mid-1500s

tokugawa shogunate2
Tokugawa Shogunate

Between 1549 and 1600, European missionaries had converted 300,000 Japanese to Christianity

This upset Tokugawa because the missionaries ignored Japanese cultural beliefs and laws

In 1612, Tokugawa banned Christianity and began ruthlessly persecuting Christians

All Japanese were forced to be faithful to Buddhism

Execution of Christians

japanese isolationism
Japanese Isolationism

Tokugawa shoguns decided to exclude foreign merchants and missionaries

By 1639, Japan adopted a “closed country policy” and ended almost all foreign contacts

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Nagasaki Bay

Deshima

Dutch ships

Japan

One Japanese port at Deshima in Nagasaki Bay remained open, but ONLY to Dutch and Chinese merchants

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During this era of isolation, Japan had some profitable trade, but mainly became self-sufficient, limited foreign ideas, and reduced Europe’s ability to colonize Japan

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COMPARING EMPERORS

Who was the best emperor?

  • Use your notes to complete the chart
  • When finished, rank the order of the emperors from best to worst
  • Write a comment about who is the best emperor and give reasons why
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Revamped and redone by

Christopher Jaskowiak

Original version by Brooks Baggett