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Aggression & Violence. How do we define Aggression/Violence?. Aggression: Any act or attitude of hostility toward another Violence: often acting on aggression, the use of physical force to inflict injury and/or damage. Why do we feel aggression? Why do we act violently?.

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Aggression & Violence

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    1. Aggression & Violence

    2. How do we define Aggression/Violence? Aggression: Any act or attitude of hostility toward another Violence: often acting on aggression, the use of physical force to inflict injury and/or damage
    3. Why do we feel aggression?Why do we act violently? Numerous theories are attributed to why we feel and behave aggressively, and why we act violently. These theories can be divided into the following fields Biological - Psychological Sociological
    4. Biological-Psychological Theories Instinct: Some theorize that humans are aggressive and violent by nature Suggest that our genetic code is characterized by the need for violence and aggression. Survival of the fittest? Hormones: Aggression is linked to high levels of testosterone, a male hormone. Testosterone increases the amount of adrenalinereleased by the body. Adrenaline causes excitement and stimulates action Altered brain structure or chemistry
    6. Sociological Factors Sociologists believe that aggression and violence are the result of the interaction between individuals and certain factors in society Our behaviour is dependant on issues of class, gender, power, living conditions, etc We may act aggressively/violently because it is culturally acceptable to do so, or because certain factors in our culture lead us to behave in such fashion. These are Cultural Expectations
    7. Sociological factors (cont.) Consider the following factors, which are dependant upon the values and traditions of a given society or culture Early training Link between aggression and how children were raised Influence of media Does watching violent films stir up aggressive feelings? Use of drugs/alcohol Loss of inhibitions can lead to violent behaviour
    8. Characteristics of Serial Killers Ted Bundy Usually intelligent Good appearance Superficial charm Able to differentiate right from wrong Have no conscience, do not feel empathy (psychopath) Enjoy victim's terror
    9. Serial Murders Often, a sexual element is involved in the killings, but the FBI states that motives for serial murder include "anger, thrill, financial gain, and attention seeking”. The serial murderer’s motivation to kill is not based on crimes of passion, victim precipitation, personal gain or profit.
    10. Serial Killer A serial killer is traditionally defined as a person who has killed three or more people over a period of more than a month, with down time (a "cooling off period") between the murders, and whose motivation for killing is usually based on psychological gratification.
    11. Organized Serial Killers Perpetrator plans the murder for months or years beforehand. Offender is normally married, has steady employment, and is thought to be a good member of society They bring the instruments of the crime (knives, guns, tape) to the scene with them. These murderers are often highly intelligent and are knowledgeable about forensic evidence and law enforcement's investigative capabilities.
    12. Disorganized Serial Killers They do not plan their crimes in advance. The disorganized murderer commits the crimes spontaneously. They are often unemployed and without transportation. They are more often of low intelligence or psychotic.
    13. Psychological Profiles ofSerial Killers – McDonald Triad Most serial killers exhibit at least one of these behaviors According to Robert Ressler (FBI), more than 60% of serial killers wet the bed past the age of twelve The Son of Sam, David Berkowitz, set 1,412 fires but switched over to killing because it gave him more excitement and TV news coverage Keith Jesperson, a serial killer from British Columbia who murdered more than 160 victims, started with dozens of cats and other small animals, before he moved on to human beings
    14. Types of Serial Killers Power Oriented – Ted Bundy and Dennis Rader enjoyed watching terror of their victims Mission Oriented - killers feel they are improving the world by getting rid of undesirable people such as prostitutes, i.e. Green River Killer Gary Ridgway Visionary - those who kill because they are directed by hallucinations, i.e. David Berkowitz - "Son of Sam"
    15. Psychological Types of Serial Killers Hedonistic - gain sexual satisfaction from raping, killing, mutilating, and sometimes eating the victim, i.e. Jeffrey Dahmer Comfort - those who kill for financial gain, such as insurance benefits, real estate, i.e. Golay & Rutterschmidt Disciple - those killers who kill under the influence of a charismatic killer, i.e. Leslie Van Houten and Lynette Fromme of the Manson family
    16. Choose a Serial Killer Canada Paul Bernardo and Karla Holmolka Robert William (Willie) Pickton US David Berkowitz (Son of Sam) Theodore Robert (Ted) Bundy Lee Boyd Malvo and John Allen Muhammad Jeffrey Lionel Dahmer Aileen Carol Wuornos Dennis Lynn Rader John Wayne Gacy, Jr.
    17. Diagnosis A Serial Killer Antisocial Personality Disorder Borderline Personality Disorder Narcissistic Personality Disorder
    18. How would a sociologist explain the reasons for the development of the serial killer?