Crash Course Chapters 8-10
Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration 6CO2+6H2O->C6H12O6+6O2 C6H12O6+6O2->6CO2+6H2O Photoautotrophs
Primary Productivity The amount of energy plants converted from the sun Gross Primary Productivity=GPP Net Primary Productivity=NPP GPP=NPP+Respiration Secondary Production
GPP= 10,000kcal/m2 Resp=2,000kcal/m2 NPP=? Resp=4000kcal/m2 NPP=9000kcal/m2 GPP=? Practice Problems NPP=GPP-Respiration
10 percent rule 1% of suns energy enters 1st trophic level 72,000,000 was in the 1st trophic level How much energy did the sun give off and all of the other trophic levels
Energy Flow Food Chains Food Webs
Bioaccumulation Biomagnification Mercury builds in concentration as you move up the trophic levels. Healthier to eat young
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCkDxD0DV0Q&list=PLllVwaZQkS2qK4Z6xBVDRak8an1-kqsgm&index=35https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vCkDxD0DV0Q&list=PLllVwaZQkS2qK4Z6xBVDRak8an1-kqsgm&index=35 Chapter 9 Biodiversity Species Richness Species Evenness Genetic Variability
Biological Hot Spots Tropical Rainforest Coral Reefs Estuaries
Island Biogeography Large Islands-High Small Islands-Low-Selective Corridors?
Disturbance & Biodiversity Moderate Disturbance is Good Ex. Forest fires, Storms Extreme Disturbance is Bad Ex. Invasive species, pollution, habitat loss
Pesticide Treadmill Natural Selection Adaptation enables organisms to deal with disturbances Genetic Resistance is necessary in order to not go extinct Disease Resistance Antibiotic Resistance
Succession Primary- No Soil Secondary-Soil Present Pioneer Species Climax Community
Succession Cont. Early, Mid, Late Successional Species
J-Curve Unsustainable Biotic Potential r-selected species ex. roaches, mice, insects k-selected species ex. elephants, humans Negative + Positive Feedback
More Graphs Logistic Growth S-Curve k=carrying capacity
Thomas Malthus Populations will continue to grow We will run out of food We will die Unless we can reproduce sustainably
Additional Vocabulary Density Dependent Factors Ex. Disease, competition Density Independent Factors Ex. Natural Disasters
Survivorship Curves Type 1-Humans-Elephants Type 2- Birds, Rodents,Pray Animals Type 3- Insects, Plants, Oysters
Human Population Approximately 7 billion Growth Rate 1.1 1.3 Billion in China GR .5 1.2 billion in India GR 1.5 300 million in USA GR .97
Total Fertility Rate TFR Which countries have the highest TFR? Why? Infant Mortality
Practice problems • Growth Rate- 2% • GR= 35% • GR=7% A population of smurfs of 100 with a growth rate of 3.5%, in the year 1980 live on a farm that can sustain 12,800 smurfs. What year will the smurfs meet carrying capacity? Doubling Time Rule of 70 Doubling time= 70/%pop growth Population Growth=70/doubling time
Practice Problems A population of woodchucks of 400 with a growth rate of 7%, in the year 1200 live in a forest that has enough wood for 25,600 smurfs. What year will the woodchucks meet carrying capacity? A population of Vans of ten with a growth rate of 35%, in the year 2000 live in a shoe store that has enough space for 1440 shoes. What year will the shoe store meet carrying capacity?
Controlling Population Growth Biologically-Tubes Tied,Vasectomy Politically-Laws, Taxes Chemically-Birth Control Pills Physically- Condoms Mentally-Educate Woman Delay the first offspring
Crude Growth Rate The term crude means over/1000 Crude Births- 100 births per 1000 100/1000 Crude Deaths- 50 deaths per 1000 50/1000 Immigration- 25 immigrate per 1000 25/1000 Emmigration-12 emmigrate per 1000 12/1000 Whats the GR? B=15/1000 D=25/1000 I=35/1000 E=5/1000 GR=?
Social & Environmental Problems that control pop. World Hunger-Density Dependent Communicable Diseases- Density Dependent Ex. Malaria, Cholera, Bubonic Plague, Turberculosis New Diseases- HIV/AIDS, SARS, H1N1
Economics 101 GNP= Gross National Product-Sum of all goods and services provided by a country in the entire world GDP-Gross Domestic Product- Sum of all goods and services provided within the country Per Capita- Per individual GDP/Per Capita determines countries wealth US barely makes top ten Qatar and Liechtenstien more than double
Fun Facts 80% population lives in LEDC’s but they only consume 20% of the resources As countries evolve they will require more resources. Why do we need the young? Why do we need the old? What is sustainable?