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Crash Course!

Crash Course!

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Crash Course!

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  1. Crash Course! King of the Geeks!

  2. The Southern Colonies 17th and 18th Centuries

  3. General Characteristics of the South The Big Ideas

  4. General Characteristics of the South • Dominated to a degree by a plantation economy: tobacco & rice • Slavery in all colonies; begins as indentured servants, develops into African slavery • Large land holdings in the hands of the favored few = aristocratic atmosphere • Sparsely populated: churches & schools too expensive for very small towns. • Church of England most prominent, but religious toleration is common

  5. Virginia

  6. Jamestown • Founded by Virginia Company (a joint-stock company) • Consisted largely of well-to-do adventurers • Virginia Charter • Overseas settlers given same rights of Englishmen in England • Foundation for American liberties; rights extended to other colonies. • Colonists felt that, even in the Americas, they were still Englishmen

  7. Jamestown • A group of 104 English men and boys began the settlement. • Founded by the second sons of wealthy families • Later brought women and children with the intention to set up a permanent colony.

  8. Jamestown Settlement Map

  9. The REAL John Smith • Captain John Smith organized the colony beginning in 1608: • "He who will not work shall not eat." • Smith kidnapped in Dec. 1607 by Chief Powhatan • Smith perhaps "saved" by Pocahantas, Powhatan's daughter, but evidence is shaky at best.

  10. The Jamestown Nightmare • Only 40 of the original 104 survived the first year • In 1609, another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off the coast of Bermuda • Only 60 out of 400 settlers survived "starving time" of 1610-1611 • “Gentleman” colonists would not work. • Settlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming.

  11. The “Starving Time” • 1607: 104 colonists • By spring, 1608: 38 survived • 1609: 300 more immigrants arrive • By spring, 1610: 60 survived • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants arrive • 1624 population: 1,200 • Adult life expectancy: 40 years • Death of children before age 5: 80% What affect might this mortality rate have on • Men • Women • Children

  12. Effects of the “Starving Time” • Men: The men who survived were able to buy larger tracts of land, but there were fewer to work it. This increased the need for indentured servants or Indian slaves. • Women: High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth (Widowarchy) • Children: Fewer children to help on family farms also contribute to the need for servants.

  13. Reading: “Our Plantation is Very Weak”

  14. Powhatan Confederacy • Powhatan dominated a few dozen small tribes in the James River area when the English arrived. • The English called all Indians in the area Powhatans. • Powhatan probably saw the English as allies in his struggles to control other Indian tribes in the region.

  15. Culture Clash in the Chesapeake • Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse. • General mistrust because of different cultures & languages. • English raided Indian food supplies during the starving times. • 1610-1614  First Anglo-Powhatan War • Lord De La Warr (Delaware) had orders to make war on the Indians. • Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields. • Peace solidified with marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas • Powhatan uprising of 1622 • Hundreds of Powhatan warriors descended upon English colonists in Virginia, burning settlements and plantations along the James River coming perilously close to destroying Jamestown completely.

  16. Culture Clash in the Chesapeake • 1644-1646  Second Anglo-Powhatan War • Last effort of natives to defeat English. • Indians defeated again. • Peace Treaty of 1646 • Removed the Powhatans from their original land. • Formally separated Indian and English settlement areas

  17. John Rolfe • John Rolfe created Jamestown’s tobacco crop economy: "Colony built on smoke" • Rolfe introduced new tough strain of tobacco • Europeans became increasingly addicted to the nicotine; Tobacco industry became cornerstone of Virginia's economy • Plantation system emerged

  18. The House of Burgesses • The House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England • Control over finances, militia, etc. • By the end of the 17c, H of B was able to initiate legislation. • A Council appointed by royal governor • Mainly leading planters. • Functions like House of Lords. • High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.

  19. Maryland A Refuge for Catholics

  20. “Mary’s Land”

  21. Maryland is Founded • King Charles I grants 10 million acres of land to Sir George Calvert (the first Lord Baltimore) as a proprietary colony – the sole possession of Calvert and his heirs. • The colony was founded as a refuge for Catholics who were being persecuted in England. • Baltimore's plan was to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship. • Huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives. • Smaller plots of land were given to Protestant settlers, which later caused a rebellion

  22. Act for Religious Toleration • Guaranteed toleration to all Christians. • Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.]. • In one way, it was less tolerant than before the law was passed

  23. Carolina

  24. The West Indies: Way Station to the Americas • 1670 – a group of small English farmers from the W. Indies arrived in Carolina • Carolina named for King Charles II • Brought a few black slaves and the Barbados slave system with them. • Carolina was granted by the King to 8 Lord Proprietors • Exported wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe

  25. Port of Charles Town, SC • Also named for Charles II • Became the busiest port of the South • City with an aristocratic feel

  26. Crops of the Carolinas • Main crops: rice, indigo, and later cotton • The primary export was rice, still seen as exotic in England. • Rice grown in Africa, so planters imported W. African slaves • By 1710 black slaves were the majority in Carolina

  27. Conflict with Spanish Florida • Catholic Spain hated the mass of Protestant settlers on their border • Anglo-Spanish Wars • Spanish conducted border raids on Carolina • Natives drawn in to help • Natives would later withdraw to PA • Would later lead to American acquisition of Florida

  28. The Emergence of North Carolina • Northern part of Carolina shared a border with VA • VA was dominated by aristocratic planters, generally Anglican • Dissenters moved to northern Carolina – poor farmers with little need for slaves and religious dissenters • Created an environment that was irreligious, resistant to authority/aristocracy and hospitable to pirates • 1712 – NC separates from SC

  29. Georgia

  30. Late-Coming Georgia • Founded in 1733, last of the 13 colonies • Named after King George II • Founded by James Oglethorpe • Created as a “buffer” between English colonies and Spanish Florida and French Louisiana • Received subsidies from British govt. to offset costs of defense. • Also a haven for debtors • Determined to keep slavery out, but brought in by 1750 • All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration.