Crash Course! King of the Geeks!
The Southern Colonies 17th and 18th Centuries
General Characteristics of the South The Big Ideas
General Characteristics of the South • Dominated to a degree by a plantation economy: tobacco & rice • Slavery in all colonies; begins as indentured servants, develops into African slavery • Large land holdings in the hands of the favored few = aristocratic atmosphere • Sparsely populated: churches & schools too expensive for very small towns. • Church of England most prominent, but religious toleration is common
Jamestown • Founded by Virginia Company (a joint-stock company) • Consisted largely of well-to-do adventurers • Virginia Charter • Overseas settlers given same rights of Englishmen in England • Foundation for American liberties; rights extended to other colonies. • Colonists felt that, even in the Americas, they were still Englishmen
Jamestown • A group of 104 English men and boys began the settlement. • Founded by the second sons of wealthy families • Later brought women and children with the intention to set up a permanent colony.
The REAL John Smith • Captain John Smith organized the colony beginning in 1608: • "He who will not work shall not eat." • Smith kidnapped in Dec. 1607 by Chief Powhatan • Smith perhaps "saved" by Pocahantas, Powhatan's daughter, but evidence is shaky at best.
The Jamestown Nightmare • Only 40 of the original 104 survived the first year • In 1609, another ship from England lost its leaders and supplies in a shipwreck off the coast of Bermuda • Only 60 out of 400 settlers survived "starving time" of 1610-1611 • “Gentleman” colonists would not work. • Settlers wasted time looking for gold instead of hunting or farming.
The “Starving Time” • 1607: 104 colonists • By spring, 1608: 38 survived • 1609: 300 more immigrants arrive • By spring, 1610: 60 survived • 1610 – 1624: 10,000 immigrants arrive • 1624 population: 1,200 • Adult life expectancy: 40 years • Death of children before age 5: 80% What affect might this mortality rate have on • Men • Women • Children
Effects of the “Starving Time” • Men: The men who survived were able to buy larger tracts of land, but there were fewer to work it. This increased the need for indentured servants or Indian slaves. • Women: High mortality among husbands and fathers left many women in the Chesapeake colonies with unusual autonomy and wealth (Widowarchy) • Children: Fewer children to help on family farms also contribute to the need for servants.
Powhatan Confederacy • Powhatan dominated a few dozen small tribes in the James River area when the English arrived. • The English called all Indians in the area Powhatans. • Powhatan probably saw the English as allies in his struggles to control other Indian tribes in the region.
Culture Clash in the Chesapeake • Relations between Indians & settlers grew worse. • General mistrust because of different cultures & languages. • English raided Indian food supplies during the starving times. • 1610-1614 First Anglo-Powhatan War • Lord De La Warr (Delaware) had orders to make war on the Indians. • Raided villages, burned houses, took supplies, burned cornfields. • Peace solidified with marriage of John Rolfe and Pocahontas • Powhatan uprising of 1622 • Hundreds of Powhatan warriors descended upon English colonists in Virginia, burning settlements and plantations along the James River coming perilously close to destroying Jamestown completely.
Culture Clash in the Chesapeake • 1644-1646 Second Anglo-Powhatan War • Last effort of natives to defeat English. • Indians defeated again. • Peace Treaty of 1646 • Removed the Powhatans from their original land. • Formally separated Indian and English settlement areas
John Rolfe • John Rolfe created Jamestown’s tobacco crop economy: "Colony built on smoke" • Rolfe introduced new tough strain of tobacco • Europeans became increasingly addicted to the nicotine; Tobacco industry became cornerstone of Virginia's economy • Plantation system emerged
The House of Burgesses • The House of Burgesses established in 1619 & began to assume the role of the House of Commons in England • Control over finances, militia, etc. • By the end of the 17c, H of B was able to initiate legislation. • A Council appointed by royal governor • Mainly leading planters. • Functions like House of Lords. • High death rates ensured rapid turnover of members.
Maryland A Refuge for Catholics
Maryland is Founded • King Charles I grants 10 million acres of land to Sir George Calvert (the first Lord Baltimore) as a proprietary colony – the sole possession of Calvert and his heirs. • The colony was founded as a refuge for Catholics who were being persecuted in England. • Baltimore's plan was to govern as an absentee proprietor in a feudal relationship. • Huge tracts of land granted to his Catholic relatives. • Smaller plots of land were given to Protestant settlers, which later caused a rebellion
Act for Religious Toleration • Guaranteed toleration to all Christians. • Decreed death to those who denied the divinity of Jesus [like Jews, atheists, etc.]. • In one way, it was less tolerant than before the law was passed
The West Indies: Way Station to the Americas • 1670 – a group of small English farmers from the W. Indies arrived in Carolina • Carolina named for King Charles II • Brought a few black slaves and the Barbados slave system with them. • Carolina was granted by the King to 8 Lord Proprietors • Exported wine, silk, and olive oil to Europe
Port of Charles Town, SC • Also named for Charles II • Became the busiest port of the South • City with an aristocratic feel
Crops of the Carolinas • Main crops: rice, indigo, and later cotton • The primary export was rice, still seen as exotic in England. • Rice grown in Africa, so planters imported W. African slaves • By 1710 black slaves were the majority in Carolina
Conflict with Spanish Florida • Catholic Spain hated the mass of Protestant settlers on their border • Anglo-Spanish Wars • Spanish conducted border raids on Carolina • Natives drawn in to help • Natives would later withdraw to PA • Would later lead to American acquisition of Florida
The Emergence of North Carolina • Northern part of Carolina shared a border with VA • VA was dominated by aristocratic planters, generally Anglican • Dissenters moved to northern Carolina – poor farmers with little need for slaves and religious dissenters • Created an environment that was irreligious, resistant to authority/aristocracy and hospitable to pirates • 1712 – NC separates from SC
Late-Coming Georgia • Founded in 1733, last of the 13 colonies • Named after King George II • Founded by James Oglethorpe • Created as a “buffer” between English colonies and Spanish Florida and French Louisiana • Received subsidies from British govt. to offset costs of defense. • Also a haven for debtors • Determined to keep slavery out, but brought in by 1750 • All Christians except Catholics enjoyed religious toleration.