Eating Disorders / Fad Diets Junior Health
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Eating Disorders • Eating Disorders – extreme harmful eating behaviors that can cause serious illnesses or death. • Types of Eating Disorders • 1. Anorexia • 2. Bulimia • 3. Binge Eating Disorder
Factors that contribute to Eating Disorders Psychological Factors – low self-esteem, depression, Interpersonal Factors – history of physical, sexual & verbal abuse; history of being teased about weight Social Factors – Cultural Pressures of being “thin” and having “perfect body” Biological Factors – eating disorders often run in family “learned behavior”
Anorexia Nervosa • Is an eating disorder in which an irrational fear of gaining weight leads to self starvation.(sever reduction in vitamin, nutrient and energy intake that can cause organ damage or death) • Four Primary Symptoms: • resistance to maintain body weight at or above norms for height and weight • Intense fear of gaining weight or being “fat” even though underweight • Denial of the seriousness of low body weight • Loss of menstrual cycle in girls and women post-puberty
Warning Signs of Anorexia Dramatic weight loss. Preoccupation with weight, food, calories, fat grams, and dieting. Refusal to eat certain foods, progressing to restrictions against whole categories of food (e.g. no carbohydrates, etc.). Frequent comments about feeling “fat” or overweight despite weight loss. Anxiety about gaining weight or being “fat.” Denial of hunger. Development of food rituals (e.g. eating foods in certain orders, excessive chewing, rearranging food on a plate). Consistent excuses to avoid mealtimes or situations involving food. Excessive, rigid exercise regimen--despite weather, fatigue, illness, or injury, the need to “burn off” calories taken in. Withdrawal from usual friends and activities.
Health Consequences Abnormally slow heart rate and low blood pressure, which mean that the heart muscle is changing. The risk for heart failure rises as heart rate and blood pressure levels sink lower and lower. Reduction of bone density (osteoporosis), which results in dry, brittle bones. Muscle loss and weakness. Severe dehydration, which can result in kidney failure. Fainting, fatigue, and overall weakness. Dry hair and skin, hair loss is common. Growth of a downy layer of hair called lanugo all over the body, including the face, in an effort to keep the body warm.
Bulimia Nervosa BULIMIA NERVOSA : is characterized by a secretive cycle of binge eating followed by purging. Bulimia includes eating large amounts of food--more than most people would eat in one meal--in short periods of time, then getting rid of the food and calories through vomiting, laxative abuse, or over exercising.
Warning Signs of Bulimia Evidence of binge eating, including disappearance of large amounts of food in short periods of time or the existence of wrappers and containers indicating the consumption of large amounts of food. Evidence of purging behaviors, including frequent trips to the bathroom after meals, signs and/or smells of vomiting, presence of wrappers or packages of laxatives or diuretics. Excessive, rigid exercise regimen--despite weather, fatigue, illness, or injury, the need to “burn off” calories taken in. Unusual swelling of the cheeks or jaw area. Calluses on the back of the hands and knuckles from self-induced vomiting. Discoloration or staining of the teeth. Creation of lifestyle schedules or rituals to make time for binge-and-purge sessions. Withdrawal from usual friends and activities. In general, behaviors and attitudes indicating that weight loss, dieting, and control of food are becoming primary concerns.
Health Consequences of Bulimia Electrolyte imbalances that can lead to irregular heartbeats and possibly heart failure and death. Electrolyte imbalance is caused by dehydration and loss of potassium and sodium from the body as a result of purging behaviors. Inflammation and possible rupture of the esophagus from frequent vomiting. Tooth decay and staining from stomach acids released during frequent vomiting. Chronic irregular bowel movements and constipation as a result of laxative abuse. Gastric rupture is an uncommon but possible side effect of binge eating.
Binge Eating Disorder Binge Eating Disorder is characterized by: Frequent episodes of eating large quantities of food in short periods of time. Feeling out of control over eating behavior. Feeling ashamed or disgusted by the behavior. There are also several behavioral indicators of BED including eating when not hungry and eating in secret.
Health Consequences The health risks of BED are most commonly those associated with clinical obesity. Some of the potential health consequences of binge eating disorder include: High blood pressure High cholesterol levels Heart disease Diabetes mellitus Gallbladder disease
Fad Diets Fad Diets – weight-loss plans that tend to be popular for a short time. They typically promise quick, easy weight loss. Weight Cycling – a repeated pattern of losing and regaining body weight.
Types of Fad Diets Miracle Foods – these plans promise you can “burn fat” by eating lots of single food or type of food. Magic Combination – certain foods will trigger weight loss when eaten together. Liquid Diets – replace solid food with ultra-low-calorie liquid formulas. Diet Pills – pills or supplements will suppress your appetite so that you eat less. Other claim to “Block” or “Flush” fat from body. Examples: Atkins, Cabbage, South Beach, Slim Fast, Stacker Pills
10 Characteristics of Fad Diets 1. Sounds too good to be true. 2. Promises weight loss without exercise. 3. Promises weight loss of more than 1 or 2 pounds per week. 4. Discourages drinking water. 5. Food or food groups are excluded or consumed excessively. 6. Lists “good” and “bad” foods. 7. Uses these terms:“Fat Burner,” “Fat Blocker,” or “Boost Metabolism.” 8. Includes no warnings related to possible medical problems. 9. Requires purchase of pills, bars, shakes, or other foods. 10. Claims specific food combinations have weight loss powers.