Soya Sauce fermentation. Submitted by Prayas P. Chavhan M.Sc. I. Contents. What is fermentation What are fermentation product What is soya sauce Raw Materials of soya sauce Fermenting agents Preservatives and other additives The Manufacturing Process
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Soya Sauce fermentation Submitted by Prayas P. Chavhan M.Sc. I
Contents • What is fermentation • What are fermentation product • What is soya sauce • Raw Materials of soya sauce • Fermenting agents • Preservatives and other additives • The Manufacturing Process • Non-brewed method (chemical hydrolysis) • Quality Control • Byproducts/Waste • The Future • Application • Reference
What is fermentation • fermentation is the conversion of a carbohydrate such as sugar into an acid or an alcohol. • More specifically, fermentation can refer to the use of yeast to change sugar into alcohol or the use of bacteria to create lactic acid in certain foods. • Fermentation occurs naturally in many different foods given the right conditions, and humans have intentionally made use of it for many thousands of years.
The anaerobic conversion of sugar to carbon dioxide and alcohol by yeast. • Any of a group of chemical reactions induced by living or nonliving ferments that split complex organic compounds into relatively simple substances.
What are fermentation product • The product which we get from the fermentation process are called fermentation product. • Mainly these product are classified on the basis of raw materials used for the fermentation these are • Bean-based • Grain-based • Vegetable-based • Fruit-based • Honey-based • Dairy-based • Fish-based • Meat-based
What is soya sauce • Soy sauce is a condiment produced by fermenting soybeans with Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus sojae molds,along with water and salt. • After the fermentation, which yields moromi, the moromi is pressed, and two substances are obtained: a liquid, which is the soy sauce, and a cake of (wheat and) soy residue, the latter being usually reused as animal feed. • Most commonly, a grainis used together with the soybeans in the fermentation process.
Raw Materials of soya sauce • Soybeans (Glycine max) are also called soya beans, soja beans, Chinese peas, soy peas, and Manchurian beans. They have been referred to as the "King of Legumes" because of their valuable nutritive properties. Of all beans, soybeans are lowest in starch and have the most complete and best protein mix. They are also high in minerals, particularly calcium and magnesium, and in Vitamin B. Wheat • In many traditional brewed recipes, wheat is blended in equal parts with the soybeans. Pulverized wheat is made part of the mash along with crushed soy beans. The nonbrewed variety does not generally use wheat. Salt • Salt, or sodium chloride, is added at the beginning of fermentation at approximately 12-18% of the finished product weight. The salt is not just added for flavor; it also helps establish the proper chemical environment for the lactic acid bacteria and yeast to ferment properly. The high salt concentration is also necessary to help protect the finished product from spoilage
Fermenting agents • The wheat-soy mixture is exposed to specific strains of mold called Aspergillus oryzae or Aspergillus soyae, which break down the proteins in the mash. Further fermentation occurs through addition of specific • bacteria (lactobaccillus) and yeasts which enzymatically react with the protein residues to produce a number of amino acids and peptides, including glutamic and aspartic acid, lysine, alanine, glycine, and tryptophane. These protein derivatives all contribute flavor to the end product.
Preservatives and other additives Sodium benzoate or benzoic acid is added to help inhibit microbial growth in finished soy sauce. The non-brewed process requires addition of extra color and flavor agents.
The Manufacturing Process • Traditional brewed method Brewing, the traditional method of making soy sauce, consists of three steps: koji-making, brine fermentation, and refinement • Koji-making Carefully selected soybeans and wheat are crushed and blended together under controlled conditions. Water is added to the mixture, which is boiled until the grains are thoroughly cooked and softened. The mash, as it is known, is allowed to cool to about 80°F (27°C) before a proprietary seed mold (Aspergillus) is added. The mixture is allowed to mature for three days in large perforated vats through which air is circulated. This resulting culture of soy, wheat, and mold is known as koji.
Brine fermentation The kojiis transferred to fermentation tanks, where it is mixed with water and salt to produce a mash called moromi. Lactic acid bacteria and yeasts are then added to promote further fermentation. The moromimust ferment for several months, during which time the soy and wheat paste turns into a semi-liquid, reddish-brown "mature mash." This fermentation process creates over 200 different flavor compounds. • Refinement After approximately six months of moromifermentation, the raw soy sauce is separated from the cake of wheat and soy residue by pressing it through layers of filtration cloth. The liquid that emerges is then pasteurized. The pasteurization process serves two purposes. It helps prolong the shelf life of the finished product, and it forms additional aromatic and flavor compounds. Finally, the liquid is bottled as soy sauce.
Non-brewed method (chemical hydrolysis) • Instead of fermenting, many modern manufactures artificially break down the soy proteins by a chemical process known as hydrolysis because it is much faster. (Hydrolysis takes a few days as compared to several months for brewing.) • In this method, soybeans are boiled in hydrochloric acid for 15-20 hours to remove the amino acids. When the maximum amount has been removed, the mixture is cooled to stop the hydrolytic reaction. • The amino acid liquid is neutralized with sodium carbonate, pressed through a filter, mixed with active carbon, and purified through filtration. This solution is known as hydrolyzed vegetable protein. • Caramel color, corn syrup, and salt are added to this protein mixture to obtain the appropriate color and flavor. The mixture is then refined and packaged.
Sauces produced by the chemical method are harsher and do not have as desirable a taste profile as those produced in the traditional brewed manner. The difference in taste occurs because the acid hydrolysis used in the non-brewed method tends to be more complete than its fermentation counterpart. This means that almost all the proteins in the non-brewed soy sauce are converted into amino acids, while in the brewed product more of the amino acids stay together as peptides, providing a different flavor. The brewed product also has alcohols, esters, and other compounds which contribute a different aroma and feel in the mouth. • In addition to the brewed method and the non-brewed method, there is also a semi-brewed method, in which hydrolyzed soy proteins are partially fermented with a wheat mixture. This method is said to produce higher quality sauces than can be produced from straight hydrolysis.
Quality Control Numerous analytical tests are conducted to ensure the finished sauce meets minimum quality requirements. For example, in brewed sauces, there are several recommended specifications. Total salt should be 13-16% of the final product; the pH level should be 4.6-5.2; and the total sugar content should be 6%. For the non-brewed type, there is 42% minimum of hydrolyzed protein; corn syrup should be less than 10%; and carmel color 1-3%. which requires that fermented sauce must be made from fermented mash, salt brine, and preservatives (either sodium benzoate or benzoic acid). This specification also states that the final product should be a clear, reddish brown liquid which is essentially free from sediment. The non-fermented sauce is defined as a formulated product consisting of hydrolyzed vegetable protein, corn syrup, salt, caramel color, water, and a preservative. It should be a dark brown, clear liquid.
Byproducts/Waste The fermentation process produces many "byproducts" that are actually useful flavor compounds. For example, the various sugars are derived from the vegetable starches by action of the moromi enzymes. These help subdue the saltiness of the finished product. Also, alcohols are formed by yeast acting on sugars. Ethanol is the most common of these alcohols, and it imparts both flavor and odor. Acids are generated from the alcohols and sugars, which round out the flavor and provide tartness. Finally, aromatic esters (chemicals that contribute flavor and aroma) are formed when ethanol combines with organic acids. Chemical hydrolyzation also leads to byproducts, but these are generally considered undesirable. The byproducts are a result of secondary reactions that create objectionable flavoring components such as furfural, dimethyl sulfide, hydrogen sulfide, levulinic acid, and formic acid. Some of these chemicals contribute off odors and flavors to the finished product.
The Future The future of soy sauce is constantly evolving as advances are made in food technology. Improved processing techniques have already allowed development of specialized types of soy sauces, such as low-sodium and preservative-free varieties. In addition, dehydrated soy flavors have been prepared by spray drying liquid sauces. These powdered materials are used in coating mixes, soup bases, seasoning rubs, and other dry flavorant applications. In the future, it is conceivable that advances in biotechnology will lead to improved understanding of enzymatic reactions and lead to better fermentation methods. Technology may someday allow true brewed flavor to be reproduced through synthetic chemical processes
Application Enrichment of the diet through development of a diversity of flavors, aromas, and textures in food substrates Preservation of substantial amounts of food through lactic acid, alcohol, acetic acid and alkaline fermentations Biological enrichment of food substrates with protein, essential amino acids, essential fatty acids, and vitamins Elimination of antinutrients A decrease in cooking times and fuel requirements Some fermentation products (e.g., fusel alcohol) are deleterious.
Reference • Rokas, A. (2009). "The effect of domestication on the fungal proteome". Trends in genetics : TIG25 (2): 60–63. • Kitamoto, Katsuhiko (2002). "Molecular Biology of the Koji Molds". Advances in Applied Microbiology51: 129 • Goffeau, André (December 2005). "Multiple moulds". Nature438 (7071): 1092–1093. • Machida, Masayuki et al.; Asai, K; Sano, M; Tanaka, T; Kumagai, T; Terai, G; Kusumoto, K; Arima, T et al. (December 2005). "Genome sequencing and analysis of Aspergillusoryzae". Nature438 (7071): 1157–1161 • Galagan, James E. et al.; Calvo, SE; Cuomo, C; Ma, LJ; Wortman, JR; Batzoglou, S; Lee, SI; Baştürkmen, M et al. (December 2005). "Sequencing of Aspergillusnidulans and comparative analysis with A. fumigatus and A. oryzae". Nature438 (7071): 1105–1115.