Consumer behavior
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Consumer Behavior. Consumer Behavior. Buyer Behavior process by which consumers and organizational buyers make purchase decisions broad term that applies to both: ultimate consumer organizational buyers Consumer Behavior buyer behavior of ultimate consumers. Consumer Behavior.

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Consumer behavior1
Consumer Behavior

  • Buyer Behavior

    • process by which consumers and organizational buyers make purchase decisions

    • broad term that applies to both:

      • ultimate consumer

      • organizational buyers

  • Consumer Behavior

    • buyer behavior of ultimate consumers

Consumer behavior2
Consumer Behavior

  • Understanding human behavior in purchase/nonpurchase situations

  • “Borrows” from psychology and sociology Lewin’s General Model of Behavior

    • predicts that understanding consumer behavior requires understanding of:

      • individual’s psychological makeup

      • influences of others on the individual

Consumer behavior3
Consumer Behavior

  • Lewin’s General Model of Behavior (cont)

    • model offers a convenient classification of buying behavior influences

    • B = f (P,E), where:

      • behavior (B) is a

      • function (f) of interactions of

      • personal influences (P), and the pressures exerted by

      • environmental forces (E)

Consumer behavior4
Consumer Behavior

  • Lewin’s Model Applied to Consumer Behavior

    • B = f (I,P)

      • B is a function of:

      • interpersonal determinants (I), and

        • reference groups

        • culture

      • personal determinants (P)

        • attitudes

        • learning

        • perception

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Cultural Influences

    • Culture

      • values

      • beliefs

      • preferences

      • tastes

        • handed down from one generation to the next

    • Basic core values slow to change; but do change over time

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior1
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Cultural Influences (cont)

    • Subcultures - numerous subgroupings with their own distinguishing modes of behavior

      • based on factors such as:

        • race

        • nationality

        • age

        • rural vs. urban

        • sex

        • religion

        • geographical distribution

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior2
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Cultural Influences (cont)

    • African American consumers

      • growing market

      • group’s most distinguishing feature is self-description as bargain hunters

      • group shops more frequently than other groups

    • Hispanic consumers

      • heterogeneous in their national heritage cultural norms

      • consistent tendency to be brand loyal, conservative buyers, family-oriented

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior3
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Cultural Influences (cont)

    • Asian American consumers

      • very culturally diverse

      • almost two dozen different Asian language groups represented in U.S. (+ several dialects)

      • subgroups differ depending on their level of acculturation

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior4
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Social Influences

    • Includes all influences resulting from both formal and informal group memberships, other than the family

    • From group memberships, individuals receive:

      • norms

      • status

      • roles

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior5
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Norms

    • values

    • attitudes

    • behaviors

      • that the group deems appropriate for its members

  • Status

    • each person’s relative position in a group

  • Roles

    • what members of the group expect from the individual

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior6
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Asch Phenomenon

    • research project that demonstrated the impact groups and group norms have on an individual’s behavior

  • Reference Groups

    • those groups whose value structures and standards influence a person’s behavior

    • a person need not be an actual member of a reference group to be influenced by it

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior7
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Reference Groups

    • Two conditions necessary for strong influence by a group on a member’s purchase:

      • purchased product must be one that others can see and identify

      • purchased product must be conspicuous, a brand or product not everybody owns

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior8
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Social Class Membership

    • can affect both lifestyle and purchasing behavior

    • extent has not been fully determined

    • Lloyd Warner developed six-class system

      • social structures of small and large cities

        • Upper-upper Lower-upper

        • Upper-middle Lower-middle

        • Working class Lower class

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior9
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Social Class

    • Opinion leaders (influencials, trendsetters) serve as information sources about acceptance of new products and services

    • present in almost any group

    • “gatekeepers”

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior10
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Family Influences

    • characterized by close, continuing interactions among family members

    • family often represents strongest source of group influence

    • family has set of norms, roles, status

    • four role categories in family decision-making

      • autonomic husband-dominant

      • wife-dominant syncratic

Interpersonal determinants of consumer behavior11
Interpersonal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Family Influences (cont)

    • role of young children in purchasing decisions is changing

    • children influence parents to buy:

      • toys clothing

      • cereals homes (?) vacations (?)

    • teenagers, in many cases, have become household purchasing agents in their families

Personal determinants of consumer behavior
Personal Determinants of Consumer Behavior

  • Needs and Motives

  • Perceptions

  • Attitudes

  • Self-Concept

Needs and motives
Needs and Motives

  • Need

    • a lack of something useful

    • imbalance between actual and desired state

      • a need must be sufficiently aroused before it can serve as a motive to buy something

  • Motive

    • inner state that directs a person toward the goal of satisfying a felt need

    • person takes action to reduce tension and regain equilibrium

Needs and motives1
Needs and Motives

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs

    • Physiological

      • food, shelter, clothing

    • Safety/belonging

      • protection from physical harm, need for security, avoidance of the unexpected

    • Social

      • being accepted by family and other group

Needs and motives2
Needs and Motives

  • Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs (cont)

    • Esteem

      • desire to feel a sense of accomplishment, achievement, and respect from others

    • Self-actualization

      • desire to feel fulfilled, to realize one’s own potential, to fully use one’s talents and capabilities


  • The meaning each person attributes to incoming stimuli through the five senses

  • Occurrence of perception determined by interaction of two types of factors:

    • stimulus factors

      • characteristics of the physical object

    • individual factors

      • characteristics of the person receiving the incoming stimuli


  • Selective Perception

    • too many incoming stimuli for individual to react to all

    • most are filtered by individual’s perceptual screens

    • only interesting, unusual, and/or problem-solving stimuli will be consciously perceived


  • Closure

    • person’s tendency to produce a complete picture

    • many successful advertisements utilize this characteristic

  • Subliminal Perceptions

    • research shows that subliminal messages cannot force receivers to buy goods they would not consciously want


  • A person’s enduring favorable or unfavorable

    • evaluations

    • emotional feelings

    • actions

      • toward some object or idea


  • Three components of attitude:

    • cognitive

      • individual’s information or knowledge about an object or concept

    • affective

      • feelings or emotional reactions

    • behavioral

      • tendencies to act or to behave in a certain manner


  • Attitude changes come from:

    • cognitive

      • introduction of new information

    • affective

      • relating the use of the new good or service to desirable consequences for the user

    • behavioral

      • inducing the person to engage in attitude-discrepant behavior by giving free samples

Learning theory and self concept
Learning Theory and Self-Concept

  • Learning

    • changes in behavior, immediate or expected, as a result of experience

  • Components of the learning process:

    • drives

      • strong stimuli that impel action

    • cues

      • objects that determine nature of response to drive

    • reinforcement (reward)

      • Reduction in drive that results from proper response

Learning theory and self concept1
Learning Theory and Self-Concept

  • Learning theory is applied to marketing through the shaping process

  • shaping process

    • process of applying a series of rewards and reinforcements to permit more complex behaviors to evolve over time

    • example: use of discount coupons

Self concept

  • Components

    • real self

      • you as you really are; objective view

    • self-image

      • the way you see yourself

    • ideal self

      • the way you would like to look

    • looking-glass self

      • the way you think others see you

Self concept1

  • Individuals make decisions and buy products they feel will move them towards their ideal self-image

The consumer decision process
The Consumer Decision Process

  • Problem recognition

    • result of consumer awareness of a discrepancy between existing state of affairs and desired state

    • may result from:

      • routine depletion of individual’s stock of products

      • consumer’s possession of inadequate assortment of products; changed financial status

      • dissatisfaction with present brand or product type

      • boredom with current products; desire for novelty

The consumer decision process1
The Consumer Decision Process

  • Search

    • gathering of information related to the attainment of a desired state

  • Internal Search

    • mental review of stored information relevant to the problem situation

  • External Search

    • gathering of information from outside sources by consumer engaged in the research process

The consumer decision process2
The Consumer Decision Process

  • Evoked Set

    • number of brands a consumer actually considers in making a purchase decision

  • Evaluation of Alternatives/Purchase Act

    • involves evaluative criteria

    • purchase decision and purchase act are end results of the search and alternative evaluation stages of decision process

The consumer decision process3
The Consumer Decision Process

  • Postpurchase Evaluation

    • deals with consumer satisfaction with purchase

    • common for consumer to experience postpurchase anxieties in certain instances

    • Festinger - postpurchase doubt = cognitive dissonance

      • psychologically unpleasant state that occurs when an imbalance exists among a person’s cognitions (knowledge, beliefs, attitudes)

The consumer decision process4
The Consumer Decision Process

  • Cognitive Dissonance

    • more likely to occur where:

      • dollar value of purchase is high

      • rejected alternatives have desirable features not present in chosen alternative

      • decision is major one

The consumer decision process5
The Consumer Decision Process

  • Reduction of Cognitive Dissonance

    • seek out advertisements and other information supporting the chosen alternative

    • seek reassurance from other satisfied customers

    • avoid information favorable to the unchosen alternatives

    • consumer can change opinions

    • marketeers can provide informational support to reduce dissonance

Consumer problem solving processes
Consumer Problem-Solving Processes

  • Routinized response behavior

    • speed buy

    • made based on brand preference; selection from limited group of brands

  • Limited problem-solving

    • situation where evaluative criteria are set, but a new brand is encountered

  • Extended problem-solving

    • brand is difficult to categorize or evaluate; requires considerable external search