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Consumer Behavior. Influences on consumer behavior Psychological Decision making Attitudes and attitude change Sociocultural Reference groups Family decision making Culture and subculture. Consumer Problems and Recognition.

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consumer behavior
Consumer Behavior
  • Influences on consumer behavior
    • Psychological
      • Decision making
      • Attitudes and attitude change
    • Sociocultural
      • Reference groups
      • Family decision making
      • Culture and subculture
consumer problems and recognition
Consumer Problems and Recognition
  • Consumer problem:Discrepancy between ideal and actual state--e.g., consumer:
    • has insufficient hair
    • is hungry
    • has run out of ink in his or her inkjet cartridge
  • Problems can be solved in several ways--e.g., stress reduction <----- vacation, movie, hot bath, medication
consumer decisions theory and reality in consumer buying
CONSUMER DECISIONS:Theory and Reality in Consumer Buying

Problem

Recognition

Information

Search

Evaluation of

Alternatives

Purchase

Postpurchase

Evaluation/

Behaviors

Theory

Complications

approaches to search for problem solutions
Approaches to Search for Problem Solutions

INTERNAL

Memory

Thinking

EXTERNAL

Word of mouth, media,

store visits, trial

CATALOG

cost vs benefits of search
Cost vs. Benefits of Search
  • Market Characteristics
  • Product Characteristics
  • Consumer Characteristics
  • Situation Characteristics
decision issues
Types of decisions

Routinized response (e.g., gas, sodas)

Limited problem solving (e.g., car service, fast food)

Extended problem solving (e.g., new car, computer, medical procedures)

Type of evaluation:

Compensatory: Decision based on overall value of alternatives (good attribute can outweigh bad ones)

Non-compensatory: Absolutely must meet at least one important criterion (e.g., car must have automatic transmission)

Decision Issues
slide7

Variety Seeking and Impulse Buying

  • Variety seeking
    • need varies among consumers by optimal stimulation level (OSL)
    • Use innovativeness
  • Impulse purchases
    • Motivation
    • Consequences

“Don’t give me that

same old cola, that

same old cola--

I want a rock’n’roller!”

psychological influences
Motivation

Personality

Perception

Attention and competition for attention

Selective perception

Subliminal influence?

Perceived risk

Learning

Change in behavior

May or may not be conscious

Values, beliefs, and attitudes

Lifestyle—e.g., VALS2

Psychological Influences
attitude change strategies
Attitude Change Strategies
  • Change Affect
    • Classical conditioning
    • Attitude toward the ad
    • Mere exposure
  • Change behavior (e.g., sampling)
  • Change Belief Component
    • Change existing beliefs
    • Change importance of attributes
    • Add beliefs
    • Change ideal
one sided vs two sided appeals
One-sided vs. two sided appeals
  • One-sided: only saying what favors your side
  • Two-sided: stating your case but also admitting points favoring the other side
    • Why is this effective?
sociocultural influences
Personal Influence

Opinion leadership

Word of mouth and rumors

Reference groups

Associative: “We’re the Pepsi generation…”

Dissociative: “It’s not your father’s car.”

Aspirational

Culture

Subculture

Sociocultural Influences
potential family life cycle stages
Potential Family Life Cycle Stages

YOUNG

COUPLE

YOUNG

SINGLE

EMPTY NEST

I/II

FULL NEST

I/II/III

SINGLE

PARENT

OLDER

SINGLE

BLENDED

economic marketing implications of household cycles
Income tends to increase with time

But children/ obligations add cost

Divorce

increases costs

may change income distribution marriage

Product demand due to

singles with low expenses

new couples

divorced families

children

empty nesters --> more income

Economic/Marketing Implications of Household Cycles
household decision making
Roles/influence

Information gatherers/holders

Influencers

Decision makers

Purchasers

Users

Household Decision Making
more sociocultural influences
Social class

In the U.S.

Positioning strategies:

“Upward Pull”

“At Level”

In other cultures

Culture: “Share meanings”

Subculture

Ethnic

Generational

Regional

Religious groups

More Sociocultural Influences
organizational buyers
Types

Industrial

Reseller

Government and non-profit organizations

Characteristics

Greater involvement

Bureaucracy

Long term relationships

Organizational Buyers
the means end chain
The Means-End Chain

Aim promotion/

positioning at higher

levels of chain!

Self-esteem

Values

Feeling of power

Consequences

Performance

Attributes

Fast acceleration

Large engine