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An Introduction to The Big Six. NAR educators are expected to understand what the components of the Big Six skills are, how to assess them and how to design appropriate learning experiences to challenge and support all learners. This includes employing

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slide4
NAR educators are expected to understand what the components of the Big Six skills are, how to assess them and how to design appropriate learning experiences to challenge and support all learners. This includes employing

valid and reliable screening, diagnostic and progress assessments

coherent instructional design which includes alignment with the Australian Curriculum and the TfEL framework (Teaching for Effective Learning)

explicit, systematic and differentiated instruction which includes the use of an instructional model such as the Gradual Release of Responsibility (Pearson & Gallagher) or the Apprenticeship Model (Tactical Teaching: Reading)

slide6

Handout

p1 & 2

slide10

http://www.decd.sa.gov.au/northernadelaide/files/links/Concepts_about_Print.pdfhttp://www.decd.sa.gov.au/northernadelaide/files/links/Concepts_about_Print.pdf

oral language
Oral Language

Discuss:

How do you currently teach and assess oral language?

slide14

Phonological

Awareness

slide18

5

1

3

2

4

slide20

Assessment

  • Phonological Awareness Skill Map - DECD Speech Pathology
  • Screen of Phonological Awareness (SPA)DECS Publication
  • Sutherland Phonological Awareness Test – Revised (SPAT-R)

Gathering baseline data is important in identifying needs and measuring change.

20

Slide based on Talking Literacy Training Package: “Coding Breaking a Phonological Awareness Perspective” developed by DECS Speech Pathology, 2009

slide21

The SPA covers a broad range of early metalinguistic and phonological skills that have been correlated to literacy development. The items cover:

  • word awareness
  • rhyme awareness,
  • syllable awareness
  • sound awareness
  • auditory memory and sequencing
  • sentence repair
  • letter recognition.
slide22

Phonological Awareness Skill Map

Handout

P 3 & 4

http://dlb.sa.edu.au/dlsmoodle/course/view.php?id=30

22

phonics
Phonics
  • Also called “alphabetic principle”
  • “Letter-sound knowledge”
phonics1
Phonics
  • Print
    • Letter-sound correspondences
    • Blending
    • Segmenting
    • Detecting sounds in words
    • All with the printed form of the word
  • Letter formation instruction
    • Talking about the shapes of letters
    • Writing letters and words in the context of learning letter-sound relationships
stages of spelling development
Stages of Spelling Development
  • Emerging print concepts
  • Semi-phonetic
  • Phonetic
  • Transitional
  • Proficient
types of spelling knowledge
TypesofSpellingKnowledge
  • Phonological
  • Visual
  • Morphemic
  • Etymological

Visual

spelling by
Spelling by

Kinaesthetic memory is also involved in the storage and retrieval of spelling patterns, particularly those of high frequency words.

Some researchers have observed a connection between fluent, neat handwriting and spelling ability.

consider
Consider
  • What is relevant at your year level/s?
  • Which students need what? – intervention and extension?

Handout

P 3-9

vocabulary knowledge
Vocabulary knowledge
  • Is complex
  • Is critical to reading success
  • Is developmental
  • Requires explicit teaching
slide39

Stage 4: knows the word in different contexts and knows different meanings.

Stage 3: recognises the word in some contexts but not others

Stage 2: has seen or heard the word but meanings are not known

Stage 1: has never seen or heard the word before

tiers of vocabulary
Tiers of Vocabulary

Tier 1 – everyday words

Tier 2 – words used in text but not so frequently in everyday language

Tier 3 – subject specific vocabulary

slide41

Academic vocabulary can also be conceptualised as being composed of different types of language:

    • Language of Instruction
      • Words to teach and learn the lesson content (strategies, pre-writing, context clues)
    • Language of Text
      • Words related to the content-area, theme, unit, or selection (habitats, camouflage, prey)
    • Multi-syllabic words with prefixes, suffixes, and Greek and Latin roots
      • Examples: informational, hopelessness, psychology
      • Word families: rely, reliance, reliable
knowing a word
KNOWING A WORD
  • What does the word sound like?
  • How is the word pronounced?
  • What does the word look like?
  • How is the word written and spelled?
  • In what patterns does the word occur?
  • In what patterns must we use the word?
  • What words or types of words can be expected before or after the word?
  • What words or types of words must we use with this word?
  • How common is the word?
  • How often should the word be used?
  • Where would we expect to meet this word?
  • Where can this word be used?
  • What does the word mean?
  • What other words does this word make us think of?
  • What other words could we use instead of this one?
select an uncommon word
Select an uncommon word
  • Use the instructional routine to teach it to others.

alabandical

welmish

defedate

Handout

P 10

some definitions
Some definitions

Automaticity is defined as fast, accurate and effortless word identification at the single word level. The speed and accuracy at which single words are identified is the best predictor of comprehension.

Fluency, on the other hand, involves not only automatic word identification but also the application of appropriate prosodic features (rhythm, intonation, and phrasing) at the phrase, sentence, and text levels.

slide56

Levels

of

Fluency

Texts

Passages

Paragraphs

Phrases

Words

Letters

Sounds

Rapid Automatic Naming

slide60

Good readers:

  • understand the purpose of the text
  • monitor their comprehension
  • adjust their reading strategies
slide61

Students need to be explicitly taught strategies:

  • before reading
  • during reading
  • after reading
slide67

If there are problems at this level, they are unlikely to be reading connected text

• If they have developed a large sight vocabulary, reading will still “fall apart” at about Year 2 level

slide68

If the difficulties sound like….

  • Reads very haltingly
  • Stumbles over many words
  • Regularly stops to try to work out words then…
slide69

If the difficulties sound like….

  • Reads unevenly
  • Misreads more difficult words
  • Words they “read” or replacement words don’t make sense
  • Doesn’t monitor comprehension then…
slide70

If the difficulties sound like….

Reads somewhat slowly and hesitantly

• Stumbles over some but not many words

• [Remember, fluency requires automaticity – around 80-100 wpm] then…

slide71

If the difficulties sound like….

  • Reads quickly (i.e. has rapid word recognition) without much expression
  • Doesn’t “engage”
  • May understand basic content
  • Only understands at superficial level then…
australian curriculum
Australian Curriculum

Comprehension strategies: strategies and processes used by readers to make meaning from texts. Key comprehension strategies include:

  • activating and using prior knowledge
  • identifying literal information explicitly stated in the text
  • making inferences based on information in the text and their own prior knowledge
  • predicting likely future events in a text
  • visualising by creating mental images of elements in a text
  • summarising and organising information from a text
  • integrating ideas and information in texts
  • critically reflecting on content, structure, language and images used to construct meaning in a text
slide74

Making Connections

The chain links things together like making connections between more than one thing. The chain can also be used for various Venn Diagrams which show the connections between text & self, text & text and text & world.

slide76

Questioning

The cube represents the element of chance and not always knowing what will turn up. Cubes can also be used for questioning activities e.g. Question Matrix cubes, Comprehension Cubes and Search Cube which is a visual search engine that presents question results in the form of a 3D cube that you can then rotate and flip to search for answers in text, video and image formats.

slide77

1 = remember

2 = understand

3 = apply

4 = analyse

5 = evaluate

6 = create

teachingmadeeasy.com.au

slide78

Question Matrix

EVENT

SITUATION

CHOICE

PERSON

RESAON

MEANS

PRESENT

What

Is?

Where/

When is?

Which did?

Who is?

Why is?

How is?

PAST

What did?

Where/ When did?

Which did?

Who did?

Why did?

How did?

POSSIBILITY

What can?

Where/ When can?

Which can?

Who can?

Why can?

How can?

PROBABILITY

What would?

Where/ When would?

Which would?

Who would?

Why would?

How would?

PREDICTION

What will?

Where/ When will?

Which will?

Who will?

Why will?

How will?

IMAGINATION

What might?

Where/ When might?

Which might?

Who might?

Why might?

How might?

(C. Weiderhold ‘Co-operative Learning and Critical Thinking’

in Langrehr, Better Questions, better Thinking Book 2, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, 1993)

slide79

BETWEEN THE LINES

Search for clues

Inferential

Interpretive Level

The author meant it.

Inferencing

Inferring involves looking for clues and evidence within the text and combining them with your own knowledge to make informed guesses about the author’s intentions, make predictions and draw conclusions.

Search for Clues

http://learningplace.com.au/

slide80

Visualising

The digital camera is used for capturing still and video images. Visualising is like using a digital camera to imagine what is happening in a text.

slide81

Determining Importance

Determining Importance is like sifting material through a funnel to find the main idea, theme or author’s message in a text.

slide82

Summarising & Synthesising

Summarising is like taking apart a jigsaw to understand the important elements of each part. Synthesising is putting together the pieces of several jigsaws to form a new picture.

http://reading-comprehension-assistance.wikispaces.com/

slide84

http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/northernadelaide/pages/fsm/facilitatorsupport/http://www.decs.sa.gov.au/northernadelaide/pages/fsm/facilitatorsupport/