An Introduction to The Big Six. NAR educators are expected to understand what the components of the Big Six skills are, how to assess them and how to design appropriate learning experiences to challenge and support all learners. This includes employing
The Big Six
valid and reliable screening, diagnostic and progress assessments
coherent instructional design which includes alignment with the Australian Curriculum and the TfEL framework (Teaching for Effective Learning)
explicit, systematic and differentiated instruction which includes the use of an instructional model such as the Gradual Release of Responsibility (Pearson & Gallagher) or the Apprenticeship Model (Tactical Teaching: Reading)
p1 & 2
How do you currently teach and assess oral language?
Gathering baseline data is important in identifying needs and measuring change.
Slide based on Talking Literacy Training Package: “Coding Breaking a Phonological Awareness Perspective” developed by DECS Speech Pathology, 2009
The SPA covers a broad range of early metalinguistic and phonological skills that have been correlated to literacy development. The items cover:
P 3 & 4
Kinaesthetic memory is also involved in the storage and retrieval of spelling patterns, particularly those of high frequency words.
Some researchers have observed a connection between fluent, neat handwriting and spelling ability.
Stage 4: knows the word in different contexts and knows different meanings.
Stage 3: recognises the word in some contexts but not others
Stage 2: has seen or heard the word but meanings are not known
Stage 1: has never seen or heard the word before
Tier 1 – everyday words
Tier 2 – words used in text but not so frequently in everyday language
Tier 3 – subject specific vocabulary
Academic vocabulary can also be conceptualised as being composed of different types of language:
1. A fundamental, essential, or irreducible constituent of a composite entity.
Automaticity is defined as fast, accurate and effortless word identification at the single word level. The speed and accuracy at which single words are identified is the best predictor of comprehension.
Fluency, on the other hand, involves not only automatic word identification but also the application of appropriate prosodic features (rhythm, intonation, and phrasing) at the phrase, sentence, and text levels.
Rapid Automatic Naming
If there are problems at this level, they are unlikely to be reading connected text
• If they have developed a large sight vocabulary, reading will still “fall apart” at about Year 2 level
Reads somewhat slowly and hesitantly
• Stumbles over some but not many words
• [Remember, fluency requires automaticity – around 80-100 wpm] then…
Comprehension strategies: strategies and processes used by readers to make meaning from texts. Key comprehension strategies include:
The chain links things together like making connections between more than one thing. The chain can also be used for various Venn Diagrams which show the connections between text & self, text & text and text & world.
The cube represents the element of chance and not always knowing what will turn up. Cubes can also be used for questioning activities e.g. Question Matrix cubes, Comprehension Cubes and Search Cube which is a visual search engine that presents question results in the form of a 3D cube that you can then rotate and flip to search for answers in text, video and image formats.
2 = understand
3 = apply
4 = analyse
5 = evaluate
6 = create
Where/ When did?
Where/ When can?
Where/ When would?
Where/ When will?
Where/ When might?
(C. Weiderhold ‘Co-operative Learning and Critical Thinking’
in Langrehr, Better Questions, better Thinking Book 2, Longman Cheshire, Melbourne, 1993)
Search for clues
The author meant it.
Inferring involves looking for clues and evidence within the text and combining them with your own knowledge to make informed guesses about the author’s intentions, make predictions and draw conclusions.
Search for Clues
The digital camera is used for capturing still and video images. Visualising is like using a digital camera to imagine what is happening in a text.
Determining Importance is like sifting material through a funnel to find the main idea, theme or author’s message in a text.
Summarising is like taking apart a jigsaw to understand the important elements of each part. Synthesising is putting together the pieces of several jigsaws to form a new picture.