Warm-Up 3-18-13 • Please take out a half sheet of paper, and on it please predict the purpose of each part of a nerve cell. (pictured below)
Neuron • A neuron is the main cell that builds up your brain and nerves • The neuron receives information through the dendrites and sends out information through the axons.
Dendrites • Dendrites are the “input” for a neuron. • Each neuron has many dendrites ready to receive information from many other nerve cells. • Dendrite comes from the Greek word for tree.
Axon • Axons are the “output” for a neuron. • An axon is how information travels to the next neuron. • Axons are covered in a Myelin sheath. The gaps in this are called the Nodes of Ranvier
Synapse • A synapse is the gap between the Axon of one neuron, and the Dendrite of another. • This gap is where communication between the two cells occurs.
Neurotransmitters • Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers used to transmit information from one neuron to another. • There are many different neurotransmitters, each one communicated a different message.
Acetylcholine (Ach) • Ach. Is involved in many movement signals. • It also plays a large role in memory. Alzheimer's Disease is often linked to Ach not working properly.
Dopamine • Dopamine is linked to movement, and internal reward systems. • A shortage of Dopamine has been linked to Parkinson’s disease. • Drugs like Cocaine and Methamphetamines cause massive releases of Dopamine.
Endorphins • Endorphins are a group of neurotransmitters that relieve pain. • Endorphins are often released after exercise or as part of a fight/flight response. • Opiates (like morphine) have a similar effect as endorphins within the brain.