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Descriptive Research (I). Week 8 Lecture 1. Agenda. Quantitative Design issues Correlation Research Survey Research. Quantitative design issues. The language of variables and hypotheses Quantitative researchers redefine concepts of interest into the language of variables

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descriptive research i

Descriptive Research (I)

Week 8 Lecture 1

agenda
Agenda
  • Quantitative Design issues
  • Correlation Research
  • Survey Research

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

quantitative design issues
Quantitative design issues
  • The language of variables and hypotheses
    • Quantitative researchers redefine concepts of interest into the language of variables
    • Attributes: the values or the categories of a variable
    • Examples:
      • Male, married, number of years married
      • SSL, SET, PKI, security technology
    • Types of variables
      • Independent variable
      • Dependent variable

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

quantitative design issues1
Quantitative design Issues
  • The language of variables and hypotheses
    • An expected but unconfirmed relationship between two or more variables
    • Where do hypotheses come from
      • Theory, direct observation,guess, intuition
    • Two different ways of stating a hypothesis
      • Looking for difference between variables
      • Looking for relationship between variables

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

refinement of hypothesis
Refinement of hypothesis
  • Problem or general hypothesis
    • You expect some children to read better than others because they come from homes in which there are positive values and attitudes to education.
  • Research hypothesis
    • Reading ability in nine-year-old children is related to parental attitudes towards education
  • Operational hypothesis
    • There is a significant relationship between reading ability for nine-year-old children as measured by standardized reading test X and parental attitudes to education as measured by attitude test Y

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

what is descriptive research
What is descriptive research
  • Identify the characteristics of an observed phenomenon
  • Explore possible correlations among two or more phenomena

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

correlational research
Correlational Research
  • Examines the extent to which differences in one characteristic or variable are related to differences in one or more other characteristics or variables.
  • Gather data about two characteristics for a particular group of people or other appropriate units of study.

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

example of correlational research
Example of correlational research

Scattergram: dynamic relationship between age and reading level

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

interpretation
Interpretation
  • Describe the homogeneity or heterogeneity of the two variables
  • Describe the degree to which the two variables are intercorrelated
  • Interpret these data and give them meaning.

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

cautions about interpreting correlational results
Cautions about interpreting correlational results
  • Correlation does not, in and of itself indicate causation
  • One variable correlates meaningfully with another only when a common causal bond links the phenomena of both variables in a logical relationship

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

survey research
Survey research
  • General features
    • Large-scale probability sampling
      • A study on snipping behavior of online auction took 368 eBay bidders as respondents
    • Systematic Procedures: Interviews and questionnaires
    • Answers are numerically coded and analyzed with the aid of statistical software
    • Used extensively for both descriptive and explanatory purposes

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

research questions appropriate for a survey
Research questions appropriate for a survey
  • Developed within the positivist approach to social science
  • Self-reported beliefs or behaviors.
  • Ask many things, measure many variables and test several hypotheses in a single survey
    • Behavior
    • Attitudes/beliefs/opinions
    • Expectations
    • Self-classification
    • Knowledge

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

steps in conduction a survey
Step 1 Questionnaire design

Develop hypotheses

Decide on type of survey (mail, interview, telephone)

Write survey questions

Decide on response categories

Design layout

Step 2 Pilot test

Plan how to record data

Pilot test survey instrument

Step 3 Sampling

Decide on target population

Get sampling frame

Decide on sample size

Select sample

Step 4 Data collection

Locate respondents

Conduct interviews (distribute questionnaire)

Carefully record data

Step 5 Data analysis

Enter data into computers

Recheck all data

Perform statistical analysis on data

Step 6 Writing up

Describe methods and findings in research report

Present findings to others for critique and evaluation

Steps in conduction a survey

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

types of surveys
Types of surveys
  • Self-administrated Questionnaires
    • Hand delivered
    • Mail survey
    • Web survey
  • Face-to-face and Telephone interviews
    • Structured interview
      • The researcher asks a standard set of questions and nothing more
    • Semi-structured interview
      • The researcher may follow the standard questions with one or more individually tailored questions to get clarification or probe a person’s reasoning

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

questionnaire item styles
Questionnaire item styles
  • Open-ended question
    • Respondents answer in their own words
  • Closed-ended question
    • Respondents choose a response from those provided
  • Examples
    • What drives you to bid in the last minutes in a second-price auction? (OPEN)
    • Which one of the factors listed below drives you to bid in the last minutes? (CLOSE)
      • () Checking around if there are other auctions offering the same item
      • () Don’t want other bidders get benefit from my expertise of the auction item
      • () Avoid bidding war
      • () Other _____________(please explain)

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

open vs closed
Open vs. closed
  • Open-ended question
    • Great freedom for respondent to answer
    • Responses may be ambiguous
    • Coding is time-consuming and costly which usually results in some degree of error
    • Entail more work from respondents
  • Closed-ended question
    • Require less effort and less facility with words
    • Difficult to develop good closed questions
    • Recommendation for designing closed-end question: use open questions in preliminary interviews or pretests

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

ranking and scaling
Ranking and scaling
  • Rank-ordering questions
  • Rating scale questions
    • Respondents are asked to indicate the degree of their agreement or disagreement with a statement

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

using language effectively
Using language effectively
  • Are the items unambiguous, easily read and sufficiently brief
    • Avoid indefinite words such as “usually”, “seldom”, “many”, “few”, “here”, “there”
  • Avoid false premises

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

using language effectively ii
Using language effectively(II)
  • Avoid double-barreled question – two separate ideas are presented together as a unit
      • The system is easy to use and helpful
  • Avoid overlapping or unbalanced response categories.

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

questionnaire design issues
Questionnaire design issues
  • Length of survey or questionnaire
  • Question order or sequence
    • Opening, middle and ending questions
    • Group questions on the same topic together.
    • Order effect
  • Format and Layout
  • Noresponse
    • The percentage of people who have and have not consented to participate
      • Those who agreed or refused to be interviewed
      • Those who have or have not returned questionnaire

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

question order effect
Question order effect

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

analyzing one variable
Analyzing one variable
  • Univariate frequency distribution

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

being critique on survey results
Being critique on survey results
  • The items to include when reporting survey research
    • The sampling frame used
    • The date on which the survey was conducted
    • The population that the sample represents
    • The size of the sample for which information was collected
    • The sampling methods
    • The exact wording of the questions asked
    • The method of the survey
    • The organizations that sponsored the survey
    • The response rate
    • Any missing information or “don’t know” responses when results on specific questions are reported

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

summary
Summary
  • Quantitative design issues
    • Language of variables and hypotheses
  • Correlational research
    • Scattergram and it’s interpretation
  • Survey research
    • Steps
    • Different types of survey
    • Design of questionnaire
    • Preliminary analysis of survey data

ISYS3015 Analytical Methods for IS Professionals

School of IT, The University of Sydney

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