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Universal Design. Material from Authors of Human Computer Interaction Alan Dix, et al. Overview. Universal design is about designing systems so they can be used by anyone in any circumstance. Multi-modal systems use more than one human input channel. Speech & non-speech sound touch

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Universal Design

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    1. Universal Design Material from Authors of Human Computer Interaction Alan Dix, et al

    2. Overview • Universal design is about designing systems so they can be used by anyone in any circumstance. • Multi-modal systems use more than one human input channel. • Speech & non-speech sound • touch • handwriting • gestures • Universal design means designing for diversity • people with sensory, physical or cognitive impairment • people of different ages • people from different cultures or backgrounds

    3. Universal Design • Practical? • May not be able to design everything to be accessible to everyone so they have the same experience, but we try to provide equivalent experience. • Does not have to be complex or costly • Many examples take into account diversity • lowered curb with different texture at intersections • help people in wheelchairs, blind • mothers pushing carriages, people lugging suitcases ...

    4. Seven Universal Design Principles 1. Equitable use - if identical use is not possible. • safety, security and privacy should be available to all. 2. Flexibility in use • provide choice of methods & adapt to user’s pace 3. Simplicity and intuitiveness of use • support user’s expectations • accommodate different languages and literacy skills • provide prompting and feedback

    5. Seven Universal Design Principles 4. Perceptible information • redundancy of information: use different forms/modes • emphasize essential information. 5. Tolerance for error • minimize impact caused by mistakes • remove potentially dangerous situations or hard to reach • hazards should be shielded by warnings.

    6. Seven Universal Design Principles 6. Low physical effort • comfort; minimize fatigue and effort; • repetitive or sustained actions should be avoided 7. Size and space for approach and use • placement of system should be reachable by all users • consider line of sight for standing and sitting user • allow for variation in hand size • provide room for assistive devices • Principles 6 and 7 apply less to software

    7. Multi-modal Interaction • Provides access to information through more than one mode of interaction • Sight is predominant and most interactive systems use visual channel as primary presentation • graphics • text, • video • animation

    8. Multi-modal interaction • Sound important • keeps us aware of surroundings • provides clues and cues to switch our attention • music - also auditory • convey and alter moods • conjure up visual images • evoke atmospheres • Touch • tactile feedback to operate tools • hold and move tools, instruments, pens

    9. Multi-modal interaction • Taste and smell • less appreciated • check food if bad, detect early signs of fire, …

    10. Multi-modal interaction • Human-human everyday interaction multi-modal • Each sense provides different information to make whole • Want Human-computer interaction to be multi-modal • visual channel can get overloaded • provide richer interaction • provide redundancy for an equivalent experience to all

    11. Sound in the interface • Contributes to usability • Audio confirmation • changes in key clicks • error occurrences • Provide information when visual attention elsewhere • …or environment has visual limitations • Dual presentation through sound and vision supports universal design • enables access to visual and hearing impaired • Two kinds: speech and nonspeech

    12. Sound in the interface: Speech • Language complex • structure • pronunciation • phonemes - atomic elements of speech (40 in English) • prosody - alteration in tone and quality • co-articulation - phonemes sound different next to others • allophones - differences in sound in phonemes • morphemes - smallest unit of language that has meaning • grammar

    13. Sound in the interface: Speech • Speech recognition • Useful when hands are occupied • Alternative means of input for users with visual, physical and cognitive impairment • single-user systems; require training • barriers • background noise • redundant and meaningless noise (‘uh’) • variations between individuals and regional accents • Examples • speech-based word processors • telephone -based systems • interactive systems that give feedback

    14. Sound in the interface: Speech • Speech Synthesis • Complementary to speech recognition • Problems • monotonic - doesn’t sound natural • canned messages - not too bad, prosody can be hand coded • spoken output cannot be reviewed or browsed easily • intrusive (more noise or equipment) • Application areas • blind or partially sighted • accessible output medium (screen readers) • assist those with disabilities affecting their speech • predefined messages can be stored

    15. Sound in the interface: Speech • Un-interpreted speech • Speech does not have to recognized by computer to be useful • Examples: • Fixed pre-recorded messages • human prosody and pronunciation • quality is low • example: announcements in airport • Voice mail • Audio annotations • Can be digitally sped up without changing pitch

    16. Sound in the interface: Non-speech sound • Assimilated quickly • Learned regardless of language • Require less attention • Uses: • indications of changes or errors in interactive system • provide status changes • sound representation of actions and objects • provide confirmation • give redundant information • Two Kinds - auditory icons and earcons

    17. Sound in the interface: Non-speech sound • Auditory icons • Use natural sounds to represent types of objects and actions • Example: Mac’s SonicFinder • crumpling paper when putting file in wastebasket • Problem: Some objects or actions don’t have a natural sound

    18. Sound in the interface: Non-speech sound • Earcons • use structure- combinations of notes (motives) to represent actions and objects • vary according to rhythm, pitch, timbre, scale and volume • hierarchically structured • compound earcons - combine motives • ‘create’ and ‘file’ • family earcons - ‘error’ family • makes learning easier • even lack of musical ability has little effect on ability to remember earcons

    19. Touch in the interface • Touch both sends and receives information • Touch in the interface is haptic interaction • Two areas: • cutaneous - tactile sensations through skin • vibrations against skin; temperature, texture • kinesthetics - perception of movement and position • resistance or force feedback • Entertainment or training • Tactile devices • electronic braille display • force feedback devices in VR equipment

    20. Handwriting Recognition • Handwriting provides textural and graphical input • Technology for recognition • digitizing tablet • sampling problems • electronic paper - thin screen on top • Recognizing handwriting • variation among individuals (even day-to-day) • co-articulation - letters are different next to others • cursive more difficult

    21. Gesture recognition • Subject in multi-modal systems recently • Involves controlling computer with movements • Put that there • Good situations • no possibility for typing (VR) • supports people with hearing loss (sign language • Technology expensive • computer vision • data glove (intrusive)

    22. Gesture recognition • Problems • Gestures user dependent • variation • co-articulation • segmenting gestures difficult

    23. Designing for Diversity • Interfaces usually designed for ‘average’ user • Universal design indicate we take into account many factors (focus on 3) • disability • age • culture

    24. Designing for users with disabilities • 10% population has disability that will affect interaction with computers • Moral and legal responsibility to provide accessible products • Look at following kinds of impairments • sensory • physical • cognitive

    25. Visual impairment • Screen readers using synthesized speech or braille output devices can provide complete access to text-based interactive applications. • Ironically rise in use of graphical interfaces reduces possibilities for visually impaired users. • To extend access use • sound • touch

    26. Visual impairment • Sound • speech • earcons and auditory icons to graphical objects • Example 1: Outspoken • Macintosh application • uses synthetic speech to make other Mac applications available to visually impaired users

    27. Visual impairment • More recent is use of touch in the interface • Tactile interaction • electronic braille displays • force feedback devices • elements in interface can be touched • edges, textures and behavior (pushing a button) • requires specialist software • more likely major applications will become ‘haptic enabled’ in future

    28. Hearing impairment • Hearing impairment may appear to have little impact on use of an interface (or a graphical interface) • To an extent true (but increase in multi-media applications)

    29. Hearing impairment • Computer technology can enhance communication opportunities for people with hearing loss • email and instant messaging • gesture recognition to translate signing or speech • caption audio content • Also enhances experiences of all users - good universal design

    30. Physical impairment • Users with physical disabilities vary in amount of control and movement they have in hands • Precise mouse control may be difficult • Speech input and output is an option (if they can speak without difficulty)

    31. Physical impairment • Alternatives • eyegaze system - tracks eye movements to control cursor • keyboard driver - attaches to user’s head • gesture and movement tracking • predictive systems (Reactive keyboard) can anticipate commands within context

    32. Speech impairment • Multimedia systems provide a number of tools for communication • text-based communication and conferencing systems (slow) • synthetic speech • can be pre-programmed • predictive algorithms • anticipate words and fill them in • conventions can help provide context • smiley face :) for a joke

    33. Dyslexia • Textual information is difficult for dyslexic users • More severe forms • idiosyncratic word construction methods • spell phonetically • Speech input and output devices can alleviate need to read and write • Less severe forms • spell correction facilities • Consistent navigation structure and clear sign posting cues are important • Use color coding and graphical information

    34. Autism • Affects person’s ability to communicate and interact with people and make sense of environment • Triad of impairments • Social interaction - relating to others and responding appropriately to social situation • Communication - problems in understanding verbal and textual language (including gestures and expressions) • Imagination - rigidity of thought processes

    35. Autism • Universal design can assist in two main areas: • Communication • computers are motivating (consistent and impersonal) • problems with language may be aided by graphical representations of information • Education • enables autistic person to experience (VR and games) social situations and learn appropriate responses • provides a secure and consistent environment where they are in control

    36. Designing for different age groups • Older people and children have specific needs when it comes to interactive technology • Older people • proportion growing • have more leisure time and disposable income • no evidence they are averse to new technologies

    37. Designing for different age groups: Older people • Requirements: • proportion of disabilities increases with age • over 50% over age 65 have one • failing vision, hearing, speech, mobility • age-related memory loss • some older users lack familiarity and fear learning • New tools • email and instant message provide social interaction in cases of mobility or speech difficulties • mobile technologies provide memory aids

    38. Designing for different age groups: Older people • Manuals and terminology difficult, so use redundancy and support user of access • Designs must be clear and simple and forgiving of mistakes • Sympathetic and relevant training

    39. Designing for different age groups: Children • Children have specific needs and they are diverse • different ages • have own goals and likes and dislikes • Involve children in design of interactive design (intergenerational design teams) • May not have developed hand-eye coordination and makes keyboards difficult • pen-based interfaces • multiple modes of input involving touch and handwriting • redundant displays

    40. Designing for cultural differences • National • Age • Gender • Race • Sexuality • Class • Religion • Political Persuasion All influence individual’s response to a system, but may not be relevant in design of a given system

    41. Designing for cultural differences • Key factors to consider • language • cultural symbols • gestures • use of color

    42. Designing for cultural differences • Language • Toolkits for designing systems provide language resource databases to translate menu items, text, error messages, etc. • Layouts for languages that don’t read the same are a problem • left to right vs top to bottom • Symbols have different meaning • ticks and crosses - interchangeable in some cultures • rainbow - covenant with God, diversity, hope and peace

    43. Designing for cultural differences • Use of gestures • common in video and animation • more common in virtual reality and avatars in games • Color • red for danger • red represents life (India), happiness (China) and royalty (France) • difficult to assume universal interpretation of color • support and clarify color with redundancy