Progress and Conflict in the New Industrial Order. History 17B Lecture 3. Spirit of Individualism. “Rags to Riches” stories Horatio Alger’s characters embraces individualism Hard work pays off. Mainstream Ideals. Andrew Carnegie. J.P. Morgan. John D. Rockefeller.
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John D. Rockefeller
Minimize costs and maximize profits.
Replace or augment human labor.
Sell more goods cheaply AND at a profit.
Scientific Management (aka “Taylorism”)
Reduce tasks to a minimum of movement directed by one authority.
Management holds monopoly of knowledge.
Non-skilled, cheap labor performs simple, repetitive tasks. (Assembly line.)Business Efficiency
Rich should help the poor help themselves.
Donate to cultural, educational, and scientific endeavors.
Herbert Spencer and William Graham Sumner’s theories of “survival of the fittest.”
The rich are the most fit.
Government shouldn’t interfere with natural process.Individualism
“What a funny little government”, 1900
Doors locked to keep women in and union organizers out.
Fire escapes poorly made.
146 people killed.Triangle Shirtwaist Fire, 1911
A “cooperative commonwealth” open to all of the producing class
Promotes broad social reform.
730,000 members (1886)
American Federation of Labor (AFL)
Open only to skilled workers for more bargaining power.
Samuel Gompers and “pure and simple unionism”
130,000 members (1886)Labor Unions
Anarchist rally turns into police riot in Haymarket Square, Chicago.
Anarchists and Labor Unions are blamed.
Knights of Labor folds but AFL gains strength.Haymarket Riot of 1886
Industrial Workers of the World
A radical western labor union focusing on unskilled workers.IWW (Wobblies)
The new industrial order would not commence without challenges from American workers.