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    1. 1 Classroom Instruction That Works Research-Based Strategies for Increasing Student Achievement By Robert J. Marzono Debra J. Pickering Jane E. Pollock Published 2005 Expands on the 2000 What Works in Classroom Instruction by Marzano, Gaddy and Dean Introduction to the book If you already have a copy, please leave this one and well pass it on to someone elseIntroduction to the book If you already have a copy, please leave this one and well pass it on to someone else

    2. 2 Effect Sizes and Other Exciting Topics Educational research Meta-analysis Standard deviation units Percentile gains Negative effects Normal distribution One size does not fit all The unknown proceed with caution Quick review of the science of studying research. Goal is not to be able to leave today and do a meta-analysis on teaching mathematics, rather to understand why the research we study must meet certain standards. As we look at the data and the application of that information, we will discuss generalizations about each component. We also plan to focus specifically on mathematics as we look at each of the following chapters.Quick review of the science of studying research. Goal is not to be able to leave today and do a meta-analysis on teaching mathematics, rather to understand why the research we study must meet certain standards. As we look at the data and the application of that information, we will discuss generalizations about each component. We also plan to focus specifically on mathematics as we look at each of the following chapters.

    3. 3 Three ^ Elements of Effective Pedagogy

    4. 4 Big Ideas Applying the Research on Instruction: What Works Individual teacher impact much higher than previously believed Research-Based Strategies Identifying Similarities and Differences Summarizing and Note Taking Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Homework and Practice Nonlinguistic Representations Cooperative Learning Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Generating and Testing Hypotheses Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Have participants turn to the table of contents and star the one they are most interested in learning more, underline the one that they already know the most about, and circle the one they know the least about today. Note that following a brief introduction, we will start with Summarizing and Note Taking.Have participants turn to the table of contents and star the one they are most interested in learning more, underline the one that they already know the most about, and circle the one they know the least about today. Note that following a brief introduction, we will start with Summarizing and Note Taking.

    5. 5 Identifying Similarities and Difference Pattern-seeking human brain Making comparisons Classifying Creating metaphors Creating analogies Teacher-directed and student-directed Brief introductionBrief introduction

    6. 6 Summarizing and Note Taking Summarize Identify critical information Analyze it deeply Understand the structure of information Take Notes Teach HOW to take notes Review and revise Use as study guide for test Brief introductionBrief introduction

    7. 7 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition Belief in effort (not luck, other people, or ability) is most important Not all students realize the importance of effort We can change their beliefs to emphasize effort Rewards positive or negative? When is it most effective to reward? What are the most effective rewards? Brief introductionBrief introduction

    8. 8 Homework and Practice Opportunity to deepen understanding and sharpen skills taught in class Purpose should be clearly articulated to students and parents Work towards both accuracy and speed (understanding and fluency) Brief introductionBrief introduction

    9. 9 Nonlinguistic Representations Reflect on and create mental pictures Interpret and generate graphic representations When tied to linguistic statements, strengthens understanding and memory Brief introductionBrief introduction

    10. 10 Cooperative Learning Positive interdependence Face-to-face interaction Individual and group accountability Interpersonal and small group skills Group processing Brief introductionBrief introduction

    11. 11 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback Goal setting Narrow the focus Seek generalization Utilize student input in goal setting Feedback is Corrective and instructional (not just right or wrong) Timely Specific to skill or knowledge A way of self-monitoring Brief introductionBrief introduction

    12. 12 Generating and Testing Hypotheses Applying knowledge Deductive and inductive reasoning Giving written and verbal justification Applicable to many subject areas Brief introductionBrief introduction

    13. 13 Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers Activate prior knowledge Focus on IMPORTANT, rather than unusual Aim for higher order questioning Utilize wait time Incorporate before, during and after Choose the right tool for the situation Brief introductionBrief introduction

    14. 14 Looking closer . . . Chapter 2 Similarities and Differences

    15. 15 Research and Theory on Identifying Similarities and Differences Explicitly teaching students to identify similarities and differences enhances their ability to understand and use knowledge Direct instruction Rich student discussion and inquiryDirect instruction Rich student discussion and inquiry

    16. 16 Research and Theory on Identifying Similarities and Differences Providing opportunities for students to independently identify similarities and differences enhances their ability to understand and use knowledge From homogeneous answers with direct instruction to divergent thoughtsFrom homogeneous answers with direct instruction to divergent thoughts

    17. 17 Research and Theory on Identifying Similarities and Differences Representing similarities and differences in graphic or symbolic form enhances students understanding of and ability to use knowledge

    18. 18 Research and Theory on Identifying Similarities and Differences Identification of similarities and differences can be accomplished in a variety of highly interactive ways Comparing Classifying Creating metaphors Creating analogies Hot air balloon integer exampleHot air balloon integer example

    19. 19 Comparing Classroom Practice Teacher-Directed Comparison Tasks Items Characteristics for comparison This is really a matching activityThis is really a matching activity

    20. 20 Comparing Student-Directed Comparison Tasks Items Characteristics for comparison This moves students toward sorting, rather than matchingThis moves students toward sorting, rather than matching

    21. 21 Graphic Organizers for Comparisons Grade-level tables Generate list of mathematically-related situations in which you can add teaching and making comparisonsGrade-level tables Generate list of mathematically-related situations in which you can add teaching and making comparisons

    22. 22 Classifying Classroom Practice Teacher-Directed Classification Tasks Elements Categories Again, the task is more on a matching activityAgain, the task is more on a matching activity

    23. 23 Classifying Student-Directed Classification Tasks Elements Categories

    24. 24 Graphic Organizers for Classification Practice a word sort two levels in packet Generate a list of situations/topics to classifyPractice a word sort two levels in packet Generate a list of situations/topics to classify

    25. 25 Metaphors Teacher-Directed Metaphors First element Abstract relationship

    26. 26 Metaphors Student-Directed Metaphors First element Abstract relationship

    27. 27 Analogies Teacher-Directed Analogies Discuss and guide analysis of first relationship Add : Multiply Discuss and guide analysis of how first relationship might apply to second set Subtract : Divide Teach whole analogy Add : Subtract : : Multiply : Divide Scaffold task

    28. 28 Analogies Student-Directed Analogies Provide first relationship Add : Multiply Students analyze and create second set Subtract : Divide Scaffold task

    29. 29 Graphic Organizers for Analogies

    30. 30 Similarities and Differences Teach directly Have students practice independently Teach and use graphic or symbolic representations Use a variety of activities Quick reviewQuick review

    31. 31 Looking closer . . . Chapter 3 Summarizing and Note Taking

    32. 32 Summarizing Research and Theory Determine critical information Delete some Substitute some Keep some Analyze at a deep level Comprehension is critical Understand the structure of the material Components and features Knowing where to look Real life situations arent written in neat equations. Comprehension of language is critical Understanding the structure summary frames Real life situations arent written in neat equations. Comprehension of language is critical Understanding the structure summary frames

    33. 33 Summarizing Rule Based Strategy, Summary Frames, Reciprocal Teaching Classroom Practice Rule-based Strategy Delete trivial information Delete redundant material Categorize use superordinate terms Select or create a topic sentence Dave Barrys example the story problem, but also reading from the textbookDave Barrys example the story problem, but also reading from the textbook

    34. 34 Summarizing Rule Based Strategy, Summary Frames, Reciprocal Teaching Classroom Practice Summary Frames Narrative Frame Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame (expository) Definition Frame Argumentation Frame Problem/Solution Frame Conversation Frame When to use. . . Narrative story problems TRI concept descriptions *Activity USA today summary Definition key words and vocabulary *Activity Argumentative supporting your answer, providing justification Problem/Solution supporting possible answers Conversation frame least applicable to mathWhen to use. . . Narrative story problems TRI concept descriptions *Activity USA today summary Definition key words and vocabulary *Activity Argumentative supporting your answer, providing justification Problem/Solution supporting possible answers Conversation frame least applicable to math

    35. 35 Summarizing Rule Based Strategy, Summary Frames, Reciprocal Teaching Classroom Practice Reciprocal Teaching Summarizing Questioning Clarifying Predicting Because discussion aids understanding, this process helps students clarify their thinkingBecause discussion aids understanding, this process helps students clarify their thinking

    36. 36 Note Taking Research and Theory Succinctly explain the critical information Verbatim least effective A work in progress Review Revise Teacher direction Study guides for tests More is better than less for test performance Closely related to summarizing Closely related to summarizing

    37. 37 Note Taking Classroom Practice Teacher-prepared notes Clear, organized, accurate Identifies most important content in summary form Understanding of concepts, not just memorization of facts Student format for notes Informal outlines 2 column notes Webs/maps Combination notes Activity use of note-taking graphic organizer Lets look at YOUR notes- how did you do? Spe Ed provide notes. Understand the cognitive process involved in taking notes helps deepen understanding and improves retention of knowledge. 2-column note taking summarize todays chapterActivity use of note-taking graphic organizer Lets look at YOUR notes- how did you do? Spe Ed provide notes. Understand the cognitive process involved in taking notes helps deepen understanding and improves retention of knowledge. 2-column note taking summarize todays chapter

    38. 38 2-column definitions TERM DEFINITION acute obtuse right complementary supplementary alternate interior alternate exterior Discuss importance of grouping for study, and use of superordinate termsDiscuss importance of grouping for study, and use of superordinate terms

    39. 39

    40. 40 Looking closer . . . Chapter 4 Reinforcing Effort and Providing Recognition

    41. 41 Success is generally attributed to? Ability Effort Other People Luck Where do you stand? Ability, Effort, Other People, LuckWhere do you stand? Ability, Effort, Other People, Luck

    42. 42 Research and Theory Reinforcing Effort Attitudes and beliefs impact student performance Not all students realize the importance of believing in effort Students can learn to change their beliefs about effort

    43. 43 Classroom Practice Reinforcing Effort Teaching Keeping track of effort and performance Do students know how important effort is? Charting and graphing progress applicable in all content areasDo students know how important effort is? Charting and graphing progress applicable in all content areas

    44. 44 Research and Theory Providing Recognition Would you be motivated by more money? Would you do it for the teacher of the year award? Would you be motivated by increased student performance in your classroom? Would you do it to see MEAP/ACT/SAT scores improve for your students? ? Work hard to be the very best teacher you can be. . . .because of. . . . ? Work hard to be the very best teacher you can be. . . .because of. . . .

    45. 45 Research and Theory Providing Recognition 1. Rewards do not necessarily have a negative effect on intrinsic motivation. 2. Reward is most effective when it is contingent on the attainment of some standard of performance. 3. Abstract symbolic recognition is more effective than tangible rewards. Lets review figure 4.5, page 56Lets review figure 4.5, page 56

    46. 46 Classroom Practice Providing Recognition Personal Recognition Pause, Prompts, and Praise Concrete Symbols of Recognition Recap big ideasRecap big ideas

    47. 47 Looking closer . . . Chapter 5 Homework and Practice

    48. 48 Homework Research and Theory The amount of homework assigned should vary by grade level. (effect pg. 61; quote and recommendations pg 62) Parent involvement in homework should be kept to a minimum. The purpose should be identified and clearly articulated to students and parents. If you assign it, you should comment on it.

    49. 49 Classroom Practice Assigning Homework 1. Establish and communicate a homework policy. 2. Design homework assignments that clearly articulate the purpose and outcome. 3. Vary the approaches to providing feedback.

    50. 50 Practice Research and Theory Mastering a skill requires a fair amount of focused practice. While practicing , students should adapt and shape what they have learned. Practice the skill over time Japanese - less practice in beginning read quote and discuss at tablePractice the skill over time Japanese - less practice in beginning read quote and discuss at table

    51. 51 Practicing Skills Classroom Practice Charting Accuracy and Speed Designing Practice Assignments that Focus on Specific Elements of a Complex Skill or Process Planning Time for Students to Increase Their Conceptual Understanding of Skills or Processes

    52. 52 Looking closer . . . Chapter 6 Nonlinguistic Representations

    53. 53 Nonlinguistic Representations Reflect on and create mental pictures Interpret and generate graphic representations When tied to linguistic statements, strengthens understanding and memory Brief introductionBrief introduction

    54. 54 Looking closer . . . Chapter 7 Cooperative Learning

    55. 55 Research and Theory Cooperative Learning Five Defining Elements Positive Interdependence Face-to-face promotive interaction Individual and group accountability Interpersonal and small group skills Group processing Figure 7.1 Research resultsFigure 7.1 Research results

    56. 56 Research and Theory Cooperative Learning Three generalizations: Organizing groups based on ability levels should be done sparingly. Cooperative groups should be kept rather small in size. Cooperative learning should be applied consistently and systematically, but not overused.

    57. 57 Classroom Practice Cooperative Learning Using a variety of criteria Informal, formal and base groups Managing group size Combining cooperative learning with other classroom structures

    58. 58 Looking closer . . . Chapter 8 Setting Objectives and Providing Feedback

    59. 59 Write it down. Written goals have a way of transforming wishes into wants; cannots into cans; dreams into plans; and plans into reality. Don't just think it - ink it!

    60. 60 Goal Setting Process of establishing a direction for learning Quotes?Quotes?

    61. 61 Goal Setting Most successful people have mastered goal setting to help them achieve short term and long term desires Most people find goal setting is necessary for success Most people find goal setting is necessary for success

    62. 62 Goal Setting Instructional goals narrow what students focus on Upside and downside to this: Upside is that students learn what we point out as important but Downside is that while focusing on what we identify as important, students learn less about what we dont identify as most important. Small effect size of -.20 indicates that the average student in the class where specific goals about the cell were set, would score 8 percentile points lower than a student in a class where these goals were not set, on a test of information that did not pertain to the cell. Why? Setting a goal focuses students attention to such a degree that they ignore/skim/forget information not specifically related to the goal.Upside and downside to this: Upside is that students learn what we point out as important but Downside is that while focusing on what we identify as important, students learn less about what we dont identify as most important. Small effect size of -.20 indicates that the average student in the class where specific goals about the cell were set, would score 8 percentile points lower than a student in a class where these goals were not set, on a test of information that did not pertain to the cell. Why? Setting a goal focuses students attention to such a degree that they ignore/skim/forget information not specifically related to the goal.

    63. 63 Goal Setting Instructional goals need to be specific, but should not be too specific. We need a balance. If too specific, can have an effect size of .12 (small size). Behavioral objectives that are too narrow, focus too tightly on what students need to lean. They learn less then about surrounding material (over focused).We need a balance. If too specific, can have an effect size of .12 (small size). Behavioral objectives that are too narrow, focus too tightly on what students need to lean. They learn less then about surrounding material (over focused).

    64. 64 Goal Setting Students should be encouraged to personalize the teachers goal Adapt goals to personal needs and desires Using contracts allow students the opportunity to state the goals they will try to attain and the grade they will receive if they do attain them Adapt goals to personal needs and desires Using contracts allow students the opportunity to state the goals they will try to attain and the grade they will receive if they do attain them

    65. 65 Personalized Goal Setting Helpful Tools Sentence Stems I want to know more about I know that the heart pumps blood through the body, but I want to know how a heart attack happens. I want to know how I can use a2 + b2 = c2 in real life. I want to know if the intestines are really four miles long. I want to know why the answer to multiplication of fractions is smaller than either of the fractions multiplied. Sentence stems have been considered helpful tools in personalizing the goals.Sentence stems have been considered helpful tools in personalizing the goals.

    66. 66 Personalized Goal Setting Helpful Tools Contracts: - Contracts allow students the opportunity to state the goals they will try to attain and the grade they will receive if they do attain them Within the framework of the larger goal established by the teacher, students can contract for their own learning and grade they will receive when they achieve it.Within the framework of the larger goal established by the teacher, students can contract for their own learning and grade they will receive when they achieve it.

    67. 67 Closely tied to goal setting is prioritizing. This slide is one that addresses teachers rather than students. New basal series come with box loads of materials. They dont have time to teach it all and need help in deciding on what is most important. We hope to have a preliminary report in January from the national math panel. Then, similar to the national reading panel, we will have big ideas in math instruction. Closely tied to goal setting is prioritizing. This slide is one that addresses teachers rather than students. New basal series come with box loads of materials. They dont have time to teach it all and need help in deciding on what is most important. We hope to have a preliminary report in January from the national math panel. Then, similar to the national reading panel, we will have big ideas in math instruction.

    68. 68 Classroom Instruction that Works Providing Feedback

    69. 69 Providing Feedback The most powerful single modification that enhances achievement is feedback. The simplest prescription for improving education must be dollops of feedback (p.9) John Hattie University of Aukland After analyzing 8000 studies, John Hattie came to this conclusionAfter analyzing 8000 studies, John Hattie came to this conclusion

    70. 70 Providing Feedback Effect sizes on providing feedback are generally medium to large _____________________________________ .0 none percentile gain of 0 .20 small percentile gain of 8 .50 medium percentile gain of 20 .80 large percentile gain of 29 A moment for review on effect sizes .20 small percentile gain of 8 .50 medium percentile gain of 20 .80 large percentile gain of 29 A moment for review on effect sizes .20 small percentile gain of 8 .50 medium percentile gain of 20 .80 large percentile gain of 29

    71. 71 Providing Feedback Feedback should be corrective Provide students with an explanation of what they are doing that is correct and what they are doing that is not correct The studies that had large effect sizes of .90 and higher were ones that included corrective feedback The studies that had large effect sizes of .90 and higher were ones that included corrective feedback

    72. 72 Providing Feedback Different ways of giving feedback on tests have varied impacts of learning Providing students with an explanation as to what is right and what is wrong with their answers (ES .53) Allowing them to repeat the task (retake test) until they can succeed (ES .53) Providing them with the correct answer (ES .22) Telling students if answer is right or wrong (ES -.08) (simply telling them their score) We also know that teachers can provide feedback in different ways and those different ways have different levels of impact on student learning.We also know that teachers can provide feedback in different ways and those different ways have different levels of impact on student learning.

    73. 73 Timing of Feedback Feedback should be timely The more delay that occurs in giving feedback, the less improvement there is in achievement In test taking situations, Immediately after a test (ES .72) Delayed after a test (ES .56) Immediately after a test item (ES .19) Also know that the timing of feedback has different impacts on student learning Also know that the timing of feedback has different impacts on student learning

    74. 74 Timing of Tests Timing of tests One day after learning takes place (ES .74) One week after learning takes place (ES . 53) Longer than one week after learning takes place (ES . 26) Immediately after learning takes place (ES . 17) Not all learning learning can be tested one day later. Review day before test would seem to be a strong instructional implication Not all learning learning can be tested one day later. Review day before test would seem to be a strong instructional implication

    75. 75 Providing Feedback Feedback should be specific to a criterion reference a specific level of skill or knowledge Need to provide feedback on what students have learned about the content rather than how they stand relative to others or what grade they received Feedback to students needs to reflect on their learning not on their standing in comparison to othersFeedback to students needs to reflect on their learning not on their standing in comparison to others

    76. 76 Providing Feedback Helpful Tools Students Own Progress Monitoring Students Progress Monitoring of Others Rubrics Feedback to students needs to reflect on their learning not on their standing in comparison to othersFeedback to students needs to reflect on their learning not on their standing in comparison to others

    77. 77 Providing Feedback Students can effectively provide some of their own feedback Students can monitor their own progress Keep track of their performance over time Graph correct number of words (problems) correct in a minute Read Naturally - reading Fast Facts - math

    78. 78 Providing Feedback Students can effectively provide feedback to each other Peer Assisted Learning Strategies Reading and Math PALS has a very structured system for providing corrective feedback. PALS has a very structured system for providing corrective feedback.

    79. 79 Looking closer . . . Chapter 9 Generating and Testing Hypotheses

    80. 80 Research and Theory on Generating and Testing Hypotheses By definition, the process of generating and testing hypotheses involves the application of knowledge Brief introductionBrief introduction

    81. 81 Research and Theory on Generating and Testing Hypotheses Deductive reasoning Inductive Reasoning

    82. 82 Research and Theory on Generating and Testing Hypotheses Explaining the hypotheses and the conclusions, particularly in writing, leads to deeper understanding of the principles

    83. 83 Research and Theory on Generating and Testing Hypotheses Applicable to many subject areas Specific Mathematics examples

    84. 84 Classroom Practice for Generating and Testing Hypotheses A variety of structured tasks Systems Analysis Problem Solving Historical Investigation Invention Experimental Inquiry Decision Making

    85. 85 Classroom Practice for Generating and Testing Hypotheses Deeper understanding develops through the process of explaining, orally or in writing, your thinking. Teachers can

    86. 86 Looking closer . . . Chapter 10 Cues, Questions, and Advance Organizers

    87. 87 Research and Theory on Cues and Questions Activate prior knowledge and you increase learning Lets compare the effect sizes on page 112. Brief introductionBrief introduction

    88. 88 Research and Theory on Cues and Questions Focus on IMPORTANT, rather than unusual information

    89. 89 Research and Theory on Cues and Questions Aim for higher order questioning

    90. 90 Research and Theory on Cues and Questions Utilize wait time

    91. 91 Research and Theory on Cues and Questions Incorporate questions before, during and after learning experiences

    92. 92 Classroom Practice for Cues and Questions Explicit Cues

    93. 93 Classroom Practice for Cues and Questions Questions that elicit inferences

    94. 94 Classroom Practice for Cues and Questions Analytical Questions

    95. 95 Research and Theory on Advance Organizers Effect sizes, page 117 Important, not unusual Higher-level rather than lower-level thinking Information that needs organizing Choose the right tool for the job

    96. 96 Research and Theory on Advance Organizers Expository Advance Organizers (describing the content) Narrative Organizers (telling the information in a story format) Skimming the text (read the bold print or summary) Graphic Advance Organizers

    97. 97 Looking closer . . . Chapter 11 Teaching Specific Types of Knowledge ~ Vocabulary, Details, Organizing Ideas, Skills and Processes Nine categories quick review, add to notes, remind participants of importance of notes being a work in processNine categories quick review, add to notes, remind participants of importance of notes being a work in process

    98. 98 Research and Theory on Teaching Vocabulary Terms Students must encounter words in context more than once to learn them. Check out effect sizes on page 125. Compare the notes youve taken about effect sizes with a partner. Specifics about Vocabulary. Reference to Anita Archer training and web-site resources notes. Activity referencing effect sizes and taking notes with partners?Specifics about Vocabulary. Reference to Anita Archer training and web-site resources notes. Activity referencing effect sizes and taking notes with partners?

    99. 99 Research and Theory on Teaching Vocabulary Terms Instruction in new words (prior instruction) enhances learning those words in context. Paired language is when you use both the target vocabulary word and a student-friendly explanation in the same sentence. For example, Look for the parallel lines, the ones in the same plane that wont ever intersect or cross each other, in this exercise.

    100. 100 Research and Theory on Vocabulary Terms One of the best ways to learn a new word is to associate an image with it.

    101. 101 Research and Theory on Vocabulary Terms Direct vocabulary instruction works.

    102. 102 Research and Theory on Vocabulary Terms Teach the most important words for your content area.

    103. 103 Classroom Practice in Teaching Vocabulary Identify what is critical Teach with a systematic process Student friendly explanation or description Nonlinguistic representation Examples and non-examples Student-generated explanations Student-generated nonlinguistic representations Periodic practice, review, and check for accuracy

    104. 104 Classroom Practice in Teaching Vocabulary With mathematical vocabulary is it important that you teach, and students understand: Synonyms (an axiom, or a postulate, is a rule that is accepted as true without proof) Related Terms (kilometers and miles are both units of measure but are not identical in length) Superordinate and category terms (a cube is type of three-dimensional solid or three-dimensional solids include the cube, sphere and cylinder, etc.) Opposites (Kdg. example: addition is putting together, subtraction is taking away)

    105. 105 Research and Theory on Teaching Details Systematic, multiple exposure to details Details are remembered better, both immediately and one year after instruction, when dramatization is added. Figure 11.3, page 130 Effect sizes, page 131 Facts, time sequences, cause and effect sequences and episodes Refer to Figure 11.3 on page 130 for discussionFacts, time sequences, cause and effect sequences and episodes Refer to Figure 11.3 on page 130 for discussion

    106. 106 Classroom Practice for Teaching Details Multiple exposures (Read and discuss page 132) Dramatic Representation What does THAT look like? The Devil is in the details TIME vs. effectiveness How often must we present KEY details? Read and discuss pg. 132 Activity for elem addition and subtraction with bodies secondary multiplication with fractions The Devil is in the details TIME vs. effectiveness How often must we present KEY details? Read and discuss pg. 132 Activity for elem addition and subtraction with bodies secondary multiplication with fractions

    107. 107 Research and Theory on Organizing Ideas Students commonly have misconceptions about organizing ideas when they are first introduced to them. Correcting misconceptions Discussion Argumentation Effect sizes Page 135 Processing details to come up with generalizations and principles Giving generalizations and principles and supporting them with detailsProcessing details to come up with generalizations and principles Giving generalizations and principles and supporting them with details

    108. 108 Classroom Practice for Organizing Ideas Making sure that students can clearly articulate statements of generalizations and principles and provide numerous examples Direct instruction Multiple exposures Writing Helping students increase their understanding of generalizations and principles and clear up misconceptions about them Discussion Argumentation

    109. 109 Research and Theory on Mental Skills The discovery approach is difficult to use effectively with skills. When teachers use discovery learning, they should organize examples into categories that represent the different approaches to the skill. Skills are most useful when learned to the level of automaticity. Tactics - Algorithms - Discuss difference between tactic and algorithm, then have participants read page 137.Discuss difference between tactic and algorithm, then have participants read page 137.

    110. 110 Classroom Practice for Teaching Skills Carefully structure discovery learning to ensure that students learn specific skills (organize examples) Plan for DISTRIBUTED practice to emphasize the importance of a skill

    111. 111 Research, Theory, and Classroom Practice on Processes Students should practice the parts of a process in the context of the overall process Teachers should emphasize the metacognitive control of processes Plenty of guided practice Self-monitoring by students Encourage generalization

    112. 112 Looking closer . . . Chapter 12 Using the Nine Categories in Instructional Planning

    113. 113 Quick Review of Nine Categories of BEST PRACTICE Identifying similarities and differences Summarizing and note taking Reinforcing effort and providing recognition Homework and practice Nonlinguistic representations Cooperative learning Setting objectives and providing feedback Generating and testing hypotheses Questions, cues and advance organizers

    114. 114 At the Beginning of a Unit of Instruction Teacher sets clear learning goals (Chapter 8) Fairly narrow focus, but not too specific Students identify and record their own learning goals (Chapter 8) Make connections between the topic of study and personal life Interact with peers as they set goals and discuss ways to achieve them

    115. 115 During a Unit of Instruction Monitor learning goals Provide students feedback and help them self-assess their progress toward achieving their goals. Teach and use rubrics as a tool. (Chapter 8) Ask students to keep track of their effort and its impact on achievement. Students share with each other. (Chapter 4) Periodically celebrate legitimate progress toward learning goals. (Chapter 4)

    116. 116 During a Unit of Instruction Introduce New Knowledge Activate prior knowledge (Chapter 2 and 10) Provide an advance organizer (Chapter 10) Expository Advance Organizers Narrative Advance Organizers Skimming as a Form of Advance Organizer Graphic Advance Organizer Compare what is newly learned to what was already known (Chapter 2) Compare/Contrast (Chapter 2) and Cooperative Learning Discussion (Chapter 7)

    117. 117 During a Unit of Instruction Introducing New Knowledge Have students summarize and take notes on the information being taught (Chapter 3) Highlight critical information Teach for deep understanding Understand the structure of the information so you can better summarize it Topic-Restriction-Illustration Frame (page 37) Definition Frame (page 38) Argumentation Frame (page 39) Problem/Solution Frame (page 40)

    118. 118 During a Unit of Instruction Use nonlinguistic representations to teach and have students represent what they are learning in nonlinguistic ways. (Chapter 6)

    119. 119 During a Unit of Instruction Alternate the mode of learning so that sometimes your students work in small cooperative groups and other times as individuals. Aim for active engagement. (Chapter 7)

    120. 120 During a Unit of Instruction Practice, Review, Apply Knowledge Assign homework that requires students to practice, review, and apply what they have learned; however be sure to give students explicit feedback on the accuracy of all homework. (Chapter 5) Grade important, newly-taught concept work and give feedback about conceptual, skill, or process errors. (Chapters 4 and 8) Give credit/no credit for most practice and review work; provide opportunities for self-checking (overhead or key) and ask students to graph their own accuracy and effort. (Chapter 5) Provide specific feedback for application of knowledge work.

    121. 121 During a Unit of Instruction Practice, Review, and Apply Knowledge Engage students in long-term projects that involve generating and testing hypotheses. (Chapter 9) Inductive vs. deductive reasoning Justifying your rationale, esp. in writing, deepens understanding

    122. 122 During a Unit of Instruction Notes are a Work in Progress Students revise the linguistic and nonlinguistic representations in their notes as they refine their understanding of the content. (Chapters 3 and 6)

    123. 123 At the End of a Unit of Instruction Provide students with clear assessments of their progress on each learning goal. (Chapters 4 and 8) Students self-assess on each learning goal and compare results to teacher assessments. (Chapters 4 and 8) Student articulate what they have learned about the content and themselves as learners. (Chapters 4 and 8)

    124. 124 Excellent Instruction is the KEY There is no single determinant of student success more critical than the teachers instruction. Mortimore and Sammons (1987) found that teaching had 6 to 10 times as much impact on achievement as all other factors combined. Odden and Wallace (2003) conclude that improved classroom instruction is the prime factor to produce student achievement gains. Sanders & Horn (1994) found that three years of effective teaching accounts on average for an improvement of 35 to 50 percentile points. (Schmoker, 2006)