AP World History World History Outline of “Big Picture” Patterns
8000 B.C.E. – 1500 B.C.E. • Man was gradually learning the skills that would lead to civilization: • Agricultural Revolution – importance: once man could control food source (domestication of plants (grain) and animals), only then could we move beyond hunter/gatherer.
8000 B.C.E. – 1500 B.C.E. • Things to focus on with the Agricultural Revolution: • 1. Irrigation canals in Mesopotamia (technology), unpredictable flooding – unpredictable religion. • 2. Reliable flooding in Egypt – “Gift of the Nile”, produces food surplus and stability. – reliable religion • 3. Indus River Valley – monsoon produces unpredictable flooding, may have led to eventual decline. • 4. Early China River Valley societies developed along similar lines.
1750 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E • Civilization becomes more complex: • Agriculture + City-States = specialization (careers) • Classes: Nobility/Priests, Commoners, slaves • Kings: Hammurabi’s Law Code. Rapid turn over in Mesopotamia (open), long dynasties in Egypt (protected) • Trade: along Nile, Mesopotamian products and cylinder seals found in Indus and Egypt. Obsidian from Catal Huyuk in Anatolia found hundreds of miles away. • Religion: Organized Priests and temples. Stable in Egypt, messy elsewhere (affect of environment).
1750 B.C.E. – 300 B.C.E • Mediterranean & Middle East: • Early Greeks – (Minoan, Mycenaean: establishing Med. Sea trading, later polis (city-states) • Phoenicia – expands sea trade, Carthage (Cultural diffusion) • Israel – monotheism • Assyrians – (bathed in blood), Diaspora of Jews (Cyrus of Persia allowed to return)(Migration patterns – forced vs. religious motivated)
500 B.C.E. – 300 B.C.E. • Persians: establish huge trading empire with Royal Road for communication and safe travel. (Cultural Diffusion) • Kings: rule through a bureaucratic system of local rulers and religious tolerance. Cyrus the Great allows Jews to return to Jerusalem, rebuild temple. • Establish many traditions throughout Middle East that can still be seen today. • Persian Wars with Greece.
500 B.C.E. – 30 B.C.E. • Greece develops independent city-states (polis). Athens – direct democracy. • Military – Persian Wars: Greek Hoplites/Phalanx prevent Persia from advancing west, later leading to Hellenistic culture influencing all of Western Civilization. (Cultural Diffusion) • Alexander the Great: defeats Darius/Persians establishing empire from Greece to India. Builds cities, libraries, museums, schools – spreading Greek culture. • Ptolemy Dynasty in Egypt continues Hellenism until Rome takes over.
200 B.C.E. – 200 C.E. • Rise of Empires with strong centralized, bureaucratic governments. • Two best examples: Rome and Han Dynasty • Both: this time period is when they are at their height before decline. • Both expand territory, develop extensive trade network throughout . Rome with roads, Han more with canals linking major rivers. (Cultural Diffusion) • Lasting influence of both: Greco/Roman culture will shape western civilization government and legal systems. (republic – U.S.) • Han Dynasty will establish the traditions that will shape all Chinese dynasties until the communist revolution in 1900s.
300 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. • Trade Networks (all overland except Indian Ocean) expand across great distance spreading culture and ideas, esp. religion (Buddhism and Christianity). • Silk Road: Asia – spreads Buddhism • Indian Ocean Maritime System ruled by monsoon winds, sailing technology. • Sahara and Sub-Saharan trade networks. Spreads culture, language, and technology across Africa, esp. through Bantu Migrations and Mali salt/gold trade.
600 C.E. – 1400 C.E. • Clashes Among Different Cultures • 600 – 1200 Rise and spread of Islam. Focus on Abbasid Caliphate, 661 C.E. – 850 C.E., p. 203. • 600 - 1200 Spread of Christianity through Byzantine, Kiev, Western Europe. • 1095 – 1204 Crusades. Leads to lasting animosity between Europeans and Islam. Reestablishes trade networks with Europe. • 1200 Mongols spread throughout Asia, improves trade until 1500 (Pax Mongolia for 200 yrs.) • Threat of Mongols spur Japan to create Samurai and Emperor based government.
1200 – 1500 C.E. • Europe – exposure to new trade and ideas leads to Renaissance, increased knowledge leads to questioning of authority. • Renaissance leads to Protestant Reformation, rise in power of kings. • Era of Discovery – Europe wants everything Asia has to offer, Arabs close off all land routes (too many hard feelings from Crusades). • Prince Henry the Navigator collects technology related to sailing, expands range of Europeans: God, Gold, Glory
1450 C.E. • Pivot point. Prior to this time, ALL trade routes were land based with the exception of the Indian Ocean Trade. • The few long distance trade routes were “coast huggers” since they couldn’t carry enough supplies. • Caravel ships, compass, astrolabe, allow explorers to explore the oceans and know what latitude they were on.
1492 – 1750 C.E. North-Atlantic crossings, search for north-west passage Columbus – dispel the “evil guy” theory about disease, downfall of culture. Because he opens the Americas. • Vasco da Gama: circles the cape of Good Hope and opens it up. • Magellan: circumnavigates the globe • Pedro Cabral: blown off course and ends up off of Brazil, which leads to the Treaty of Tordasillas. • Cortes and Pizzaro are a given due to Aztec/Incas stuff. • Focus on the encounter, the interaction. Push economics/trade. (Cultural Diffusion)
1492 – 1750 C.E. • The beginning of European trade empires – an organized effort of trade. • This creates a global economy, main feature was that it becomes monetized, based on silver. Leads to mercantilism. • Provides capital to fund increasingly larger explorations. • Leads to Columbian exchange. What goes in what direction? Corn, sweet potato, cacao (Aztecs made this a spicy drink, didn’t have sugar. Europeans will make it a sweet drink.) Flesh, other than human, introduced into Aztec diet. • Diseases, of course. Small pox, measles, Europeans got new strains of influenza and syphilis. • Religious Ideas Spread: Christianity, Islam spread to new world – African Muslims enslaved in the new world (Islam forbids enslavement of fellow Muslims typically). Mixture of forms of Christianities with native religions. Today, this causes issues like voodoo, etc.
1750 - 1870 • Triangular Slave Trade – • 1. Slaves go from Africa to Latin America and N. America (Native American laborers dead within 30 years due to diseases). • 2. Raw materials (gold, silver, gems, lumber for ship building) go from Americas back to Mother countries. • 3. Manufactured goods from Europe go back to Americas for colonialists. • Muslim presence continues to rise in Middle East through Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire.
1750-1815 • Revolutions: • 1. American Revolution 1775-1800 due to long distance rule and taxes. • 2. French Revolution 1789 – 1815 due to example of Am. Rev. and response to dictatorship of government. • 3. Haitian Revolution 1789 – 1804 due to its being a French colony (influence of Fr. Rev.) and slave revolts.
1760 - 1890 • Industrial Revolution begins in England, moves to United States, then goes to Europe. Begin of change from agricultural societies to factories and urban societies. • Series of independence movements throughout Latin America and eventual end of slavery.
1800 – 1914 Age of Empires • “The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”: colonial rule in India, Australia, some of Africa. • Napoleonic Empire in Europe leads to European strength. • Russian Empire expands throughout Northern Asia. • China – Qing Empire suffers rebellions. • Ottoman Empire takes on European characteristics. • Japan Empire modernizes Japan. • Rise of Nationalism throughout Eurasia leads to Socialist movements.
1870 – 1914 Age of Imperialism • America and Spain vie for control of Latin America, leads to Spanish-American War 1898. America wins Puerto Rico, Guam, Hawaii • “Scramble for Africa” colonial powers in Europe grab whatever territory in Africa they can (Britain, France, Belgium, Portugal, more). • 1914: Ottoman Empire is collapsing, rise in nationalism throughout Europe leads to World War I. • 1917: Russian Revolution due to Socialist movements (Anastasia)
1914 - 1945 • 1914-1918 WWI Treaty of Versailles blames the entire war on Germany. • Europe is redrawn, Ottoman Empire collapses, Russia unstable, China unstable, Japan begins to expand empire throughout the Pacific. • Middle East redrawn. • 1930s World wide “Great Depression” • Unrest from aftermath of WWI and economy leads to rise in Fascism in Italy, Spain, Germany. Hitler uses this to start WWII. • 1900 – 1949 colonies in Africa, India, Mexico, Latin America push for independence.
1945 - 1989 • Aftermath of WWII leads to stronger Communist government in Russia. • Chinese civil war leads to communist takeover (cont. to this day). • 1947 Formation of Israel • 1953 Communist takeover in N. Korea • 1960s communist takeover in N. Vietnam • Threat of atomic bombs leads to “Cold War” with Russia – mutually assured destruction. • 1989 – Berlin Wall is torn down, Russian communism falls.
1975-present • Turmoil in Middle East (European Imperialism) • 1970s - Islamic revolutions in Iran and Afghanistan • 1990 Persian Gulf War • Global Economy – big difference between industrialized countries and “third world nations” • Rise in Terrorism, Sept. 11, 2001, subsequent wars (unrest due to actual or perceived Western manipulation in the Middle East).
Impact of Major Disease: • 430s B.C.E. Plague hits Greece during Pericles’ Golden Age • 540s C.E. Justinian’s Plague during Byzantine Empire • 1340s C. E. Black Death 1in 3 dead from China across Europe • 1500s – 1700s Small Pox and other European diseases kill Latin American Natives first, then North American as colonies spread. • 1918 Spanish Influenza 50–100 million people worldwide were killed • 1930s on Vaccines and Antibiotics change affects of disease. • 1980s – present AIDS pandemic, esp. Sub-Saharan Africa.
Global Society • Before 1450 C.E. – only real Global Society was the Indian Ocean Trading World • After 1450 C.E. beginnings with mercantilism and the Columbian Exchange, but emphasis is too “for the mother country” • 1900s- shift during the century from “mother country” • 1898 – U.S. moves from isolationist to imperialist with Spanish-American war, but not world player until WWII. Now part of massive global economy. • By end of 1900s few products made start to finish in one location, or even one country.