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AP World History

AP World History

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AP World History

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  1. AP World History World History Outline of “Big Picture” Patterns

  2. 8000 B.C.E. – 1500 B.C.E. • Man was gradually learning the skills that would lead to civilization: • Agricultural Revolution – importance: once man could control food source (domestication of plants (grain) and animals), only then could we move beyond hunter/gatherer.

  3. 8000 B.C.E. – 1500 B.C.E. • Things to focus on with the Agricultural Revolution: • 1. Irrigation canals in Mesopotamia (technology), unpredictable flooding – unpredictable religion. • 2. Reliable flooding in Egypt – “Gift of the Nile”, produces food surplus and stability. – reliable religion • 3. Indus River Valley – monsoon produces unpredictable flooding, may have led to eventual decline. • 4. Early China River Valley societies developed along similar lines.

  4. 1750 B.C.E. – 500 B.C.E • Civilization becomes more complex: • Agriculture + City-States = specialization (careers) • Classes: Nobility/Priests, Commoners, slaves • Kings: Hammurabi’s Law Code. Rapid turn over in Mesopotamia (open), long dynasties in Egypt (protected) • Trade: along Nile, Mesopotamian products and cylinder seals found in Indus and Egypt. Obsidian from Catal Huyuk in Anatolia found hundreds of miles away. • Religion: Organized Priests and temples. Stable in Egypt, messy elsewhere (affect of environment).

  5. 1750 B.C.E. – 300 B.C.E • Mediterranean & Middle East: • Early Greeks – (Minoan, Mycenaean: establishing Med. Sea trading, later polis (city-states) • Phoenicia – expands sea trade, Carthage (Cultural diffusion) • Israel – monotheism • Assyrians – (bathed in blood), Diaspora of Jews (Cyrus of Persia allowed to return)(Migration patterns – forced vs. religious motivated)

  6. 500 B.C.E. – 300 B.C.E. • Persians: establish huge trading empire with Royal Road for communication and safe travel. (Cultural Diffusion) • Kings: rule through a bureaucratic system of local rulers and religious tolerance. Cyrus the Great allows Jews to return to Jerusalem, rebuild temple. • Establish many traditions throughout Middle East that can still be seen today. • Persian Wars with Greece.

  7. 500 B.C.E. – 30 B.C.E. • Greece develops independent city-states (polis). Athens – direct democracy. • Military – Persian Wars: Greek Hoplites/Phalanx prevent Persia from advancing west, later leading to Hellenistic culture influencing all of Western Civilization. (Cultural Diffusion) • Alexander the Great: defeats Darius/Persians establishing empire from Greece to India. Builds cities, libraries, museums, schools – spreading Greek culture. • Ptolemy Dynasty in Egypt continues Hellenism until Rome takes over.

  8. 200 B.C.E. – 200 C.E. • Rise of Empires with strong centralized, bureaucratic governments. • Two best examples: Rome and Han Dynasty • Both: this time period is when they are at their height before decline. • Both expand territory, develop extensive trade network throughout . Rome with roads, Han more with canals linking major rivers. (Cultural Diffusion) • Lasting influence of both: Greco/Roman culture will shape western civilization government and legal systems. (republic – U.S.) • Han Dynasty will establish the traditions that will shape all Chinese dynasties until the communist revolution in 1900s.

  9. 300 B.C.E. – 600 C.E. • Trade Networks (all overland except Indian Ocean) expand across great distance spreading culture and ideas, esp. religion (Buddhism and Christianity). • Silk Road: Asia – spreads Buddhism • Indian Ocean Maritime System ruled by monsoon winds, sailing technology. • Sahara and Sub-Saharan trade networks. Spreads culture, language, and technology across Africa, esp. through Bantu Migrations and Mali salt/gold trade.

  10. 600 C.E. – 1400 C.E. • Clashes Among Different Cultures • 600 – 1200 Rise and spread of Islam. Focus on Abbasid Caliphate, 661 C.E. – 850 C.E., p. 203. • 600 - 1200 Spread of Christianity through Byzantine, Kiev, Western Europe. • 1095 – 1204 Crusades. Leads to lasting animosity between Europeans and Islam. Reestablishes trade networks with Europe. • 1200 Mongols spread throughout Asia, improves trade until 1500 (Pax Mongolia for 200 yrs.) • Threat of Mongols spur Japan to create Samurai and Emperor based government.

  11. 1200 – 1500 C.E. • Europe – exposure to new trade and ideas leads to Renaissance, increased knowledge leads to questioning of authority. • Renaissance leads to Protestant Reformation, rise in power of kings. • Era of Discovery – Europe wants everything Asia has to offer, Arabs close off all land routes (too many hard feelings from Crusades). • Prince Henry the Navigator collects technology related to sailing, expands range of Europeans: God, Gold, Glory

  12. 1450 C.E. • Pivot point. Prior to this time, ALL trade routes were land based with the exception of the Indian Ocean Trade. • The few long distance trade routes were “coast huggers” since they couldn’t carry enough supplies. • Caravel ships, compass, astrolabe, allow explorers to explore the oceans and know what latitude they were on.

  13. 1492 – 1750 C.E. North-Atlantic crossings, search for north-west passage Columbus – dispel the “evil guy” theory about disease, downfall of culture. Because he opens the Americas. • Vasco da Gama: circles the cape of Good Hope and opens it up. • Magellan: circumnavigates the globe • Pedro Cabral: blown off course and ends up off of Brazil, which leads to the Treaty of Tordasillas. • Cortes and Pizzaro are a given due to Aztec/Incas stuff. • Focus on the encounter, the interaction. Push economics/trade. (Cultural Diffusion)

  14. 1492 – 1750 C.E. • The beginning of European trade empires – an organized effort of trade.  • This creates a global economy, main feature was that it becomes monetized, based on silver. Leads to mercantilism. • Provides capital to fund increasingly larger explorations. • Leads to Columbian exchange. What goes in what direction? Corn, sweet potato, cacao (Aztecs made this a spicy drink, didn’t have sugar. Europeans will make it a sweet drink.) Flesh, other than human, introduced into Aztec diet. • Diseases, of course. Small pox, measles, Europeans got new strains of influenza and syphilis. • Religious Ideas Spread: Christianity, Islam spread to new world – African Muslims enslaved in the new world (Islam forbids enslavement of fellow Muslims typically). Mixture of forms of Christianities with native religions. Today, this causes issues like voodoo, etc.

  15. 1750 - 1870 • Triangular Slave Trade – • 1. Slaves go from Africa to Latin America and N. America (Native American laborers dead within 30 years due to diseases). • 2. Raw materials (gold, silver, gems, lumber for ship building) go from Americas back to Mother countries. • 3. Manufactured goods from Europe go back to Americas for colonialists. • Muslim presence continues to rise in Middle East through Ottoman Empire, Safavid Empire.

  16. 1750-1815 • Revolutions: • 1. American Revolution 1775-1800 due to long distance rule and taxes. • 2. French Revolution 1789 – 1815 due to example of Am. Rev. and response to dictatorship of government. • 3. Haitian Revolution 1789 – 1804 due to its being a French colony (influence of Fr. Rev.) and slave revolts.

  17. 1760 - 1890 • Industrial Revolution begins in England, moves to United States, then goes to Europe. Begin of change from agricultural societies to factories and urban societies. • Series of independence movements throughout Latin America and eventual end of slavery.

  18. 1800 – 1914 Age of Empires • “The Sun Never Sets on the British Empire”: colonial rule in India, Australia, some of Africa. • Napoleonic Empire in Europe leads to European strength. • Russian Empire expands throughout Northern Asia. • China – Qing Empire suffers rebellions. • Ottoman Empire takes on European characteristics. • Japan Empire modernizes Japan. • Rise of Nationalism throughout Eurasia leads to Socialist movements.

  19. 1870 – 1914 Age of Imperialism • America and Spain vie for control of Latin America, leads to Spanish-American War 1898. America wins Puerto Rico, Guam, Hawaii • “Scramble for Africa” colonial powers in Europe grab whatever territory in Africa they can (Britain, France, Belgium, Portugal, more). • 1914: Ottoman Empire is collapsing, rise in nationalism throughout Europe leads to World War I. • 1917: Russian Revolution due to Socialist movements (Anastasia)

  20. 1914 - 1945 • 1914-1918 WWI Treaty of Versailles blames the entire war on Germany. • Europe is redrawn, Ottoman Empire collapses, Russia unstable, China unstable, Japan begins to expand empire throughout the Pacific. • Middle East redrawn. • 1930s World wide “Great Depression” • Unrest from aftermath of WWI and economy leads to rise in Fascism in Italy, Spain, Germany. Hitler uses this to start WWII. • 1900 – 1949 colonies in Africa, India, Mexico, Latin America push for independence.

  21. 1945 - 1989 • Aftermath of WWII leads to stronger Communist government in Russia. • Chinese civil war leads to communist takeover (cont. to this day). • 1947 Formation of Israel • 1953 Communist takeover in N. Korea • 1960s communist takeover in N. Vietnam • Threat of atomic bombs leads to “Cold War” with Russia – mutually assured destruction. • 1989 – Berlin Wall is torn down, Russian communism falls.

  22. 1975-present • Turmoil in Middle East (European Imperialism) • 1970s - Islamic revolutions in Iran and Afghanistan • 1990 Persian Gulf War • Global Economy – big difference between industrialized countries and “third world nations” • Rise in Terrorism, Sept. 11, 2001, subsequent wars (unrest due to actual or perceived Western manipulation in the Middle East).

  23. Impact of Major Disease: • 430s B.C.E. Plague hits Greece during Pericles’ Golden Age • 540s C.E. Justinian’s Plague during Byzantine Empire • 1340s C. E. Black Death 1in 3 dead from China across Europe • 1500s – 1700s Small Pox and other European diseases kill Latin American Natives first, then North American as colonies spread. • 1918 Spanish Influenza 50–100 million people worldwide were killed • 1930s on Vaccines and Antibiotics change affects of disease. • 1980s – present AIDS pandemic, esp. Sub-Saharan Africa.

  24. Global Society • Before 1450 C.E. – only real Global Society was the Indian Ocean Trading World • After 1450 C.E. beginnings with mercantilism and the Columbian Exchange, but emphasis is too “for the mother country” • 1900s- shift during the century from “mother country” • 1898 – U.S. moves from isolationist to imperialist with Spanish-American war, but not world player until WWII. Now part of massive global economy. • By end of 1900s few products made start to finish in one location, or even one country.