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AP World History. Unit Review. Unit 1 Technological and Environmental Transformations (to c. 600 B.C.E.) Unit 2 Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies (600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E.) Why end 600 CE: Fall of classical civilizations. Unit 1 and 2 General Themes.

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ap world history
AP World History

Unit Review

Unit 1
  • Technological and Environmental Transformations
    • (to c. 600 B.C.E.)

Unit 2

  • Organization and Reorganization of Human Societies
    • (600 B.C.E. to c. 600 C.E.)
  • Why end 600 CE:
    • Fall of classical civilizations.
unit 1 and 2 general themes
Unit 1 and 2 General Themes
  • -Early humans
    • were hunters and gatherers, moved around (nomadic).
  • 8000 BCE:
    • Development of farming (Neolithic Revolution) Farming, animal breeding led to settlements, stability, food surplus led to job specialization (blacksmith, miller, trader, priest) gender roles emerged, craft industry (pottery, metallurgy, textiles). Copper earliest metal, led to bronze (tin & copper, 3000 BCE) and iron (carbon added, 1000 BCE)
  • Civilizations
    • started to develop (3500 BCE), led to population growth and cities. They had organized govt., complex religions, social structures, writing, job specialization, and marketplace. Developed along rivers.
    • Classical Civilizations
      • (Greece and Rome, China, India) took organization to high level. Both internal (corrupt govt., high taxes, poor leaders) and external (famine, over extensions) problems caused collapse. China recovered quickest, then India, Rome most severe.
middle east
Middle East
  • Mesopotamia
    • (Tigris and Euphrates Rivers, Fertile Crescent) Sumer was 1st civilization (3500 BCE), used wheel, Ziggurats (temples), writing cuneiform, kings ruled city states, priests, commoners, slaves. Silver used for money, calendar, astronomy.
    • Babylonians; Hammurabi’s Code 1st written law, eye for an eye
    • Phoenicians (1300 BCE); simplified alphabet, predecessor to Greek and Latin
  • Egyptians (3000 BCE);
    • Nile River, ruled by god like kings (Pharaohs), tombs were pyramids, mummification, calendar, hieroglyphics
  • Judaism (2000 BCE)
    • Nomadic group who moved from Mesopotamia to Palestine, single god (monotheistic), had covenant with God (chosen people), 10 commandments emphasized should live moral life, Romans drove out (Diaspora, 135 CE) Holy Book Torah
  • Christianity(4 BCE)
    • Jesus was Jewish, born in Judea, preached kingdom of God at hand, used many of Jewish teachings. Old Testament taught equality of souls before God, eternal life. Crucified by Romans (30 CE), Christians believed resurrected, son of God (New Testament). Religion spread by Apostle Paul.
east asia
East Asia
  • -Shang Dynasty (1500 BCE);
    • developed along the Huang He (Yellow) River in China. First used Oracle bones (scratches) then developed ideographic symbols (pictograph) writing. Used bronze metallurgy
  • -Zhou Dynasty (1029-258 BCE)
    • long lasting, emperor received power from heaven (mandate of heaven) veneration of ancestors, expanded to middle kingdom (between Huanghe and Yangtze Rivers), Used iron, not powerful central govt., ruled by regional kingdoms
  • -Confucius (551-478 BCE);
    • philosopher, sought to bring order to end warring states, need Ren (appropriate feelings and Li (correct actions), filial piety (respect for parents, elders, need to know proper role and relationship to others, should rule by moral example, 5 key relationships; ruler-subject, father-son, husband-wife, older brother-younger brother, friend-friend.
  • -Daoism (500 BCE);
    • Laozi founder of school of thought, Dao is way of nature, life interdependent, humans should exist in harmony, taught concept of wuwei (act by not acting), less govt. the better, use war only for defensive
  • -Qin Dynasty (221-202 BCE);
    • Shi Huangdi (1st emperor) brutal rule, brings order after Era of Warring States (402-221 BCE), centralized rule, started Great Wall, standardized laws, currency, weights, script, built Terracotta Army for tomb. Legalism; used by Huangdhi, man evil, needs strict laws and punishment to behave, strong central govt., absolute leader, heavy taxes
  • -Han Dynasty (206 BCE – 220 CE);
    • retained imperial rule, tried to make lees brutal, Wu Di built roads, started civil service exams based on Confuicuisism, Silk Road began to flourish, tribute system, patriachal society, scholar gentry class, respect for family, ancestors, wheel barrow, watermils, rudder, compas, paper.
  • Japan
    • developed Shintoism (600 CE), worship of political rulers and the spirits of nature. Buddhism arrived in 522 CE. Choson kingdom in Korea conquered by Han (109 BCE).
south and southeast asia
South and Southeast Asia
  • Polynesian
    • people reached Fiji and Samoa by 1000 BCE, used outrigger canoes to reach Hawaii by 400 CE, bringing pigs and a caste system ruled by local kings.
  • River Valley civilization
    • formed along the Indus River (2500 BCE), supported several large cities including Harrapa and MohenjoDaro, polytheistic, traded with Mesopotamia, but had distinct alphabet, art. Nomadic Aryans (Indo-European) migrants entered from the north(1700 BCE), had collections of hymns, songs, prayers (Vedas) written in Sanskirt, that led to the Caste system, divided into Varnas; Brahmins(priests and scholars), ksatriyas (rulers and warriors), Vaisyas (merchants), shudras (servants) and untouchables.
  • -Hinduism;
    • no founder, have dharma (duty) to perform in life, if followed get good Karma, which allows to move up level of samsara in next life because of reincarnation (rebirth) after death. Ultimate goal is moksha (oneness with universe), polytheistic, some gods are Brahma (creator) Vishnu (preserver) and Shiva (destroyer)
  • -Buddhism (500 BCE);
    • founder was Siddhartha Gautama in India, asked why so much suffering, became Buddha (enlightened one), 4 noble truths; all life is suffering, suffering is caused by desire, there is always a way out of suffering, the way out is to follow the 8 fold path and living in a righteous manner. Goal is Nirvana, release from cycle of rebirth. Don’t need Gods, seek enlightenment on own, complete equality of believers, missionaries spread message. After Buddha’s death split into Theravada (way of elders) or Hinayana (lesser vehicle) and newer Mahayana (greater vehicle)
  • -Mauryan Empire (320BCE);
    • Founded by ChanraguptaMaurya, ended long period of decentralized rule, regional kingdoms, most famous ruler was his grandson Ashoka expanded kingdom, later converted to Buddhism, spread religion. A new line of kings, the Guptas, established a large empire in 320 CE. Left local govt. intake, reestablished Hinduism. Both empires traded through Silk Road (cotton, pepper), also used Indian Ocean. Used Algebra, pi, Arabic numbers. Both empires conquered by nomads (white Huns)
  • Mostly stateless societies.
    • Nubia became an important trade corridor on the Nile.
    • Kush (1750 BCE) battled Egyptians in upper Nile. Kingdom of Axum (330 BCE) defeated Kush, eventually fell to Ethiopia.
    • Bantu became an important language based group that emerged in the Niger River basin, then migrated throughout Africa (1000 BCE))
  • 1st civilization in America was Olmecs, “mother civilization” (1200 -400 BCE) in Mesoamerica
  • Next society was Teotihuacan near Mexico City.
  • Mayans arose (250-900 CE) in Yucatan peninsula,
  • Chavins (850-250 BCE in Andes mountains.
eastern europe russia
Eastern Europe/Russia
  • -Greece (1000 BCE)
    • Ruled by city states (polis), Athens had direct democracy, citizens, Sparta military rule, centralized, fought together in victory in the Persian War, formed Delian League, later fought against each other in Peloponnesian War.
    • great philosophers (Socrates, Plato, Aristotle), Homer, Olympic games, polytheistic
    • Macedonia
      • then controlled (King Philip II, 354 BCE), his son Alexander set up empire, spread Greek culture (Hellenism)
western europe
Western Europe
  • Rome (509 BCE);
    • Monarchy changed to a Republic (govt. in which people elect representatives), dominated by wealthy class (patricians), formed Senate, common people (plebeians) gained position by winning Punic Wars with Cartage, eventually became Empire.
    • Julius Caesar led conquest of Gaul, proclaimed dictator for life, nephew Octavian took over, given title Augustus. Had written law code (Twelve tables), great road builders, merchants valued, copied Greek culture. Initially Romans persecuted Christians, later after Emperor Constantine’s Edit of Milan, granted legal status.
    • With the collapse of the Empire in the 400’s, Christianity split into Roman Catholic (west) and Eastern Orthodox
Unit 3
  • Regional and Transregional Interactions
    • (600 – 1450)
  • Why start 600:
    • Fall of classical civilizations, birth of Islam
  • Why end 1450:
    • Beginning of European Exploration
unit 3 general themes
Unit 3 General Themes

Growth of trade

(Silk Road, Indian Ocean Basin, Trans-Sahara, Mediterranean Sea)

Improved Technology

(Shipbuilding, compass, gunpowder)

Spread of Religion

(Islam, Christianity, Buddhism)

middle east1
Middle East
  • Islam
  • sprang from Bedouin society (nomads), Kaaba important in idol worship.
  • Muhammad (570)
    • a merchant, at 40 visited by angel Gabriel, received revelation Allah is only one true god, he was God’s messenger, preached all equal before God, will face judgment (heaven and hell). Fled to Medina (Hijra), viewed as a prophet, last in a long line of Jewish and Christian prophets. Returned to Mecca, captured city, after death followers wrote down revelations in holy book Quran. Universal religion, open to all, appealed to poor, women.
  • 5 pillars;
    • no God but Allah, pray 5 times a day facing Mecca, give alms, fast during Ramadan, make a pilgrimage to Mecca. After Mohammed death (632) battle over successor (caliph), Sunni (most worthy) and Shiite (descendant of Ali) split, Sunni begin the
  • Umayyad Caliphate (661-750)
    • and move capital to Damascus, extended empire around the Mediterranean. Jews and Christians (Dhimmi, people of the book) tolerated as long as paid taxes, and make Arabic official language of the Muslim world.
  • Abbasid Caliphate (750-1258)
    • follows, moves capital to Bagdad. Height of Islamic culture, pottery, rugs, Algebra, novel The Thousand and one Nights (Islamic court life), Ibn Battuta (travel journal), keep Greek ideas alive. Mongols capture caliph in 1258 and take over (Ilkhan, Hulegu). Ottomans reunify at end of period under Islamic rule.
east asia1
East Asia
  • China
    • Sui Dynasty (589-618); reunified after 350 year Era of Division under Wendi, and later Yangdi. Reestablish exam system and Silk Road, built Grand Canal
    • Tang Dynasty (618-906); expanded borders by setting up tributary system, increased silk industry and trade over Silk Road and Indian Ocean trade network. Empress Wu supported and spread Buddhism, after her anti Buddhist campaign (Emperor Wuzong) and growth of Neo –Confucianism. Poetry flourished (Li Bou), Chinese influence spread to Korea and Japan
    • Song Dynasty (960-1274) Most technological advanced society of its time, not as strong militarily as the Tang, developed working compass, paper money, flying cash (credit) ,gunpowder, block printing, civil service exam expanded, great rival of Confucianism (Neo), begin foot binding.
    • Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) Mongols under Chingis Khan began attacking Chinese territory in 1211. After death China came under rule of his grandson, Kublai Khan, adopted some Chinese ways, adopted Mandarin as official language, adopted Buddhism, restarted trade, rebuilt China’s roads, canals, Great Wall, visited by Marco Polo, forced others to pay tribute. After death, poor leadership and bubonic plague resulted in overthrow by
    • Ming Dynasty (1368-1644); Zhu Yuanzhang was a soldier, became Emperior Hongwu, son Yongle also famous ruler. Recentralized, scholar-gentry revival, established Forbidden City in Beijing, strong army and Navy, sent Zheng He (1405-1433) on long voyages to Africa, traded porcelain, exacted tribute
  • Japan
    • Hein period (794) Emperior considered decendant from Shinto god, Fujiwara clan gained power, Tale of Genji (Lady Muraski) tale of court life, Taira-Minamoto war (1156) led to medieval periodEmperor became a figurehead, real power with the shogun (great general), shared power with daimyo (warlords) Had warriors called samurai (one who serves) and lived by a code (bushito) New form of Buddhism (Zen).
  • Korea
    • fell under Chinese influence, Silla kingdom allied with Tang to defeat Koguryo and Paekce kingdoms.
south and southeast asia1
South and Southeast Asia
  • South Asia
    • India;
      • disunited (600-1200), Muslim invaders united a large part to Establish Delhi Sultanate (1206-1520) Mongol warlord Timur(1370-1405) conquered part of India, Middle East and Russia.
    • Indian Ocean trade network flourished with 3 zones;
      • Arab zone
        • traded goods from Africa (ivory, hides, timber, gold, slaves) to the Middle East (textiles, carpets, glass, horses).
      • Indian zone
        • offered Indian gems, elephants, salt, cotton cloth and cinnamon (Sri Lanka)
      • China zone
        • In the east had wood (Indonesia) and silk, porcelain, paper (China) and silver (Japan)
  • Southeast Asia
    • Vietnam fell under Chinese influence, used rice paddy farming. Khmer civilazation (889-1454) emerged in Cambodia and Laos, city of Angkor Wat. Malacca became economic powerhouse in Indian Ocean Sea trading network.
  • Polynesians
    • reached New Zealand by the 8th century (Maori), adapted to a colder climate to reach a population of 200,000 by the 18th century. Ruled by tribal military leaders and priests, elaborate art, slaves drawn from prisoners of war.
  • Mostly stateless societies.
    • Small communities lived in villages, hunting, gathering farming, metalwork, lineage sometimes matrilineal, animistic, oral tradition.
  • Ghana
    • (West Africa thrived starting 500; part of trans-Saharan trade (gold, salt, ivory, slaves, hides) eventually fell to Muslim invaders. Most dedicated converts were Berbers (desert nomads, jihad)
  • Mali 1250-1460)
    • became a strong Muslim empire along the Niger River, founded by Sundiata, most powerful ruler was Mansa Musa(1312) went on famous hajj to Mecca spreading gold, bring back Muslims scholars and artisans to Timbuktu.
  • East Africa
    • was part of Indian Ocean trading network through the Swahili city states.
  • Central Africa
    • had Great Zimbabwe (1000-1400) city of 20,000, large deposits of gold and diamonds shipped east for trade
  • Mesoamerica;
    • Toltecs (968-1156) followed Mayas, gave many legends to the Aztecs (1300-1520) Chief city was Tenochtitlan, built on a lake, had chinampas (floating islands) to feed the people, city ruled by calpulli (kin group) warlike, ruled over an empire of 10 million through a tribute system, pyramids built as temple to the gods for human sacrifice
  • South America;
    • Incas (1400-1540), lived on rugged terrain (Andes Mountains), built roads with way stations (tambos), terrace farming, irrigation, bred Llamas, large cities like Machu Picchu, used labor tribute system (mita), no written language, recorded information on knotted strings (quipu)
eastern europe and russia
Eastern Europe and Russia
  • Byzantine Empire (300-1453).
    • Centered around Constantinople, important trading center, center of Eastern orthodox church, iconoclasm, missionaries Cyril and Methodius spread religion, spoke Greek, Justinian most famous emperor, issue Justinian Code based off the Roman 12 tables, built Hagia Sophia, used Greek fire, 1st lost land to Sejik Turks, then fell to Ottoman Empire.
  • Kiev Rus;
    • Danish Prince Rurik established (855), Vladimir I converted, began separate Russian Orthodox church , highly decentralized under Boyars (aristocrats), Yarsoslav last great Kievan prince established law codes. Mongols (Taters) under Batu (Chingiss Khan’s grandson) and the Golden Horde (1236) Power shifts to Moscow as the Mongols increase trade, eventually Golden Horde defeated in Battle of Kulikova in 1380.
western europe1
Western Europe
  • Dark Ages (50-1000) and high Middle Ages (1000-1450)
    • Feudal system, Monarchs and Lords(nobles) awarded land (fiefs) to loyal vassals, manor protected by knights, had a code of chivalry, serfs worked the land, portion had to be given to lord in exchange for protection (manorialism).
  • Catholic Church
    • had much power, Monks controlled learning , held Inquisitions, launched crusades (Pope Urban II) to recapture holy land, Charles Martel defeated Muslims in Spain and Portugal (Battle of Tours, 732) Charlemagne (768-814) crowned Holy Roman Emperor, enlarged kingdom.
  • Late in the period (1300’s)
    • centered in Italy trade and commerce increased, urbanization was a trend, guilds were formed, a cultural rebirth took place (Renaissance), with a emphasis on humanism and classicism.
  • Technology
    • learned from Chinese and Muslims lead to the start of exploration, Prince Henry set up navigation school and sponsored voyages (1394-1460)
Unit 4
  • Global Interactions
    • (1450 - 1750)
  • Why start 1450:
    • Global network, rise of Europe
  • Why end 1750:
    • Beginning of Industrialization
general themes
General Themes
  • America
    • becomes part of Global trade network through Colombian Exchange (goods, disease, culture).
    • Old world provides:
      • wheat, sugar, coffee, horses, cattle, pigs, sheep, goats.
    • New world provides:
      • corn, potato, beans, tomatoes, pepper, peanuts, avocadoes, pineapple, tobacco
  • Africans
    • trade captured slaves with Europeans across Atlantic to work in America (Middle Passage)
  • America
    • colonized, natives decimated by disease (90%), new society based on race forms.
  • Portugal/Spain
    • divide up New World, later Dutch, French and British join in. Economically exploit Asia and Africa.
  • Renaissance
    • spreads north, along with reformation and enlightenment challenge Church, change life.
middle east2
Middle East
  • Ottoman Empire (1300-1923),
    • Sultan Memed II (1453) led the capture of Constantinople, expanded after Mongols declined, strong army using captured Christian boys (Janissaries), Most famous Sultan was Suleyman, built magnificent mosques and palaces. Slow decline started in 17th century.
  • Safavid Empire (1501-1723)
    • Devoted Shiites, enemies of Sunni Ottomans, Ismail led troops in battle of Chaldiran (1514), lost because he didn’t have muskets. Greatest ruler was Abbas the Great (1587-1628), added gunpowder, built public works projects, mosques, schools. Declined rapidly after his death
east asia2
East Asia
  • China
    • Ming Dynasty
      • Europeans first began to arrive during Ming period. China too powerful to conquer, but Europeans established trading ports, trading with silver. Late Ming rulers were weak, along with famine caused revolts, and Manchus, led by Nurhaci and the banner armies from the North invaded and set up the
    • Qing Dynasty (1644-1911).
      • Limited foreign trade to the port city of Canton, traded silk, porcelin, and tea. Most famous ruler was Kangxi, skilled general and lawgiver, used Confucian ideals of respect for authority.
  • Japan
    • By 150 Japan was in a period of chaos, Europeans missionaries and traders from Portugal and Holland gained much influence, included Francis Xavier. Tokugawa Ieyasu (1603) finally reunified Japan and appointed himself Shogun, moved capital to Edo. Began period of isolationism, Christians’ persecuted
south and southeast asia2
South and Southeast Asia
  • South Asia
    • Mughal Empire (1526-1739)
      • Babur
        • Begun by Babur, a Mongol warlord who led invasion, Muslim gunpowder empire, booming cotton trade, allowed Hinduism and caste system to continue, including sati. Reached its peak during rule of
      • Akbar(1556-1605),
        • grandson of Babur, great warrior who swore off violence, efficient bureaucracy and tax code, very tolerant of other faiths.
      • Shah Jahan
        • built Taj Mahal in memory of his wife.
      • Aurangzeb(1658-1707)
        • Akbar’s great grandson was not tolerant of non-Muslim, led to revolts from groups like the Sikhs, eventually collapsed after arrival of Europeans.
  • Southeast Asia
    • Buddhism and Hinduism were dominant religions, with Islam importand in Indonesia and the southern part of the Philippines. Strong states in the region included Thailand, Vietnam, and Burma.
    • Indonesia was important economically until the Europeans (1st the Portuguese, then Dutch, French and English) came. They conquered what they could, trade elsewhere.
  • Australia and New Zealand
    • British mariner Captain Cook(1770) charted the coast of Australia and New Zealand
  • Muslim Kingdom of Songhai (1493-1590)
    • arose under Sunni Ali after Mali fell. Muhammad the Great extended the boundaries into Sudan, sponsoring art and scholarship
  • West Africa;
    • Portuguese pushed down the coast of west Africa and established forts and trading posts with African merchants (factories) Most important was El Mina(1482) on the Gold coast. Europeans changed character of Slave trade from east (Arab, female) to west (Atlantic, male) by working with local powerful kingdoms (Asante, Dahomey) in trading guns for slaves captured from neighboring tribes. These slaves were taken in horrible conditions (middle passage) to America to work on plantations and mines. This became part of the triangular trade, up at least 12 million Africans until the 19th century.
  • East Africa;
    • Continued to be important part of the Indian Ocean trade network, but Portuguese began to exert increasing influence over Swahili City states, even setting up some plantations on offshore islands along with Arabs and Indians. Trade for gold, ivory and increasingly slaves continued with the interior.
  • South Africa;
    • little effected by slave trade, Portuguese then the Dutch arrived along the coast. Dutch East India Company set up a provisioning station at the Cape of Good hope(1652)and settlers began to arrive (Boers), coming into conflict with the local Zulu tribe.
  • Treaty of Tordesillas
    • divided up world between Spain and Portugal. Helped by horses, gunpowder, and divide and conquer tactics,
  • Spanish conquistadores
    • led invasion of Aztecs (Hernan Cortes, 1519) and Incas (Francisco Pizarro, 1531), eventually setting up New Spain, Natives died in massive numbers due to smallpox and measles, others died because of forced labor in gold and silver mines, or sugar plantations.
  • Encomienda system
    • forced natives to work as slaves, reduced numbers led to escalation of the Atlantic slave trade for workers.
  • King ruled new Spain
    • through two viceroyalties, which were divided up into 10 audiencias (courts)
  • Rigid class structure
    • was imposed with peninsularies (Spanish born) on the top, followed by creoles (pure Spanish born in New World), then mestizos (Spanish/native mix, mulattos (Spanish/African mix) and zambos (Natives/African), at the bottom were Natives and slaves.
  • Brazil
    • Same trends applied to Portuguese Brazil, which came to have an even more slave based economy centered on Sugar plantations.
eastern europe and russia1
Eastern Europe and Russia
  • Expand to great land empire ruled by Tsar, also head of church.
  • Ivan the Great
    • help end Mongol rule and free Moscow (1480), Ivan the Terrible continues expansion by killing many Boyars.
  • After Time of Troubles
    • the Romanov dynasty appeared (1613-1917), started by Michael and his son Alexis.
    • Peter I
      • started the process of Westernization, moved capital to St. Petersburg, limited enlightenment, and expanded serfdom
western europe2
Western Europe
  • Age of Exploration,
    • Spain
      • motivated by power, money and spread Christianity. Desire to trade with the Far East and bypass Muslims and Italian city states led to voyages Christopher Columbus (1492) sponsored by King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella
    • Portugal
      • Vasco da Gama (1497) voyage to India and Ferdinand Magellan(1519) goes around the world.
    • French, Dutch and British
      • later concentrate on North America and set up trading companies in East India.
  • Renaissance
    • expands influence north; Martin Luther’s Protestant Reformation splits church.
  • Enlightenment
    • emphasizes intellectual though, human reason, culminates in Scientific revolution. See the emergence of Nation-States that unlike empires share a common culture and language, ruled by absolute or parliamentary monarchies.
Unit 5
  • Industrialization and Global Integration
    • (1750 - 1900)
  • Why start 1750:
    • Industrialization, European Imperialism
  • Why end 1900:
    • Beginning of European decline
general themes1
General Themes
  • Industrialization
    • causes the world to be more interdependent, need for raw materials and markets (mercantilism) leads to European imperialism and colonization (conquering of other lands)
    • Industrialization also leads to population growth and massive migration to cities (urbanization)
  • Ideas of Enlightenment
    • lead to revolutions in United States, France and Latin America. Slaves and serfs are emancipated
middle east3
Middle East
  • Ottoman Empire (1300-1923),
    • fell behind Europe, starts to loose territory.
    • Mahmud II
      • tries to modernize the Ottomans in the Tanzimat Reforms (1839-1876), conservative religious ulma and liberal Young Turks oppose
  • Egypt
    • Muhammad Ali (1805) freed Egypt from Ottoman rule; his son has French build Suez Canal (1869)
  • Greece
    • Greek win independence in 1832 with the help of the west.
east asia3
East Asia
  • China
    • Qing
      • become inefficient, aggressive British traders import Indian opium and defeat Chinese in Opium War (1839). Chinese forced to sign Treaty of Nanking giving Europeans access commercially, gave Hong Kong to British.
    • Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864)
      • further weakens Qing, attempt to modernize in Self Strengthening Movement. Empress Cixi rule reversed course and became more oppressive. Boxer Rebellion put down by British.
  • Japan
    • Despite isolation, made most reforms of any non western nation in respect to challenge of Western Industrialization. US Admiral Perry (1853) forced Japan open, and Tokogawa regime was overthrown(1868)
    • Meji (Enlightened one) Restoration
      • of the emperor took place beginning Japan’s modern age, sponsoring Shintoism as State religion, abolishing feudalism, adopting western learning, economy (zaibatsu) and military ways. Won Sino Japanese War (1894-5)
south and southeast asia3
South and Southeast Asia
  • South Asia
    • Battle of Plassey (1757),
      • British defeat the Mughal and French, until 1850 India is ruled by British East India Company, but after Sepoy (native Indian troops) Mutiny the British government takes over directly (Raj). India becomes Crown Jewell of its Empire.
    • Indian National Congress (1885)
      • joins with All-Indian Muslim league to push for independence.
  • Southeast Asia
    • Like other parts of Asia, came increasingly under European control.
      • British established an outpost on Singapore, and the Dutch conrolled Indonesia, French conquered Indochina (Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia).
    • Philippines
      • The United States annexed the Philippines after defeating the Spanish in the Spanish American War (1898), despite promising revolutionary leader Emilio Aguinaldo independence if he helped fight the Spanish.
    • Thailand
      • The only area to remain outside European control was Thailand, which like the Meiji in Japan, introduced western modernization and industrialization.
    • Australia
      • became a British penal colony,
    • New Zealand
      • the Maori were defeated in New Zealand, and the Unites States annexed Hawaii (1898)
  • Europeans
    • had little presence beginning the period, mostly coastal factories where trade was conducted. Gradual ending (1876) of the Atlantic Slave trade took place in the 19th century, spurred by abolitionist movements in Britain and northern United States.
    • Between 1880 and 1914 there was a great European scramble of Africa to gain colonies. King Leopold II (Belgium) started the grab in the Congo to establish Rubber plantations, Britain occupied the Suez Canal, and the French, Italians, Germans, Portuguese all joined in. The Berlin Conference (1884) established ground rules in order to prevent European conflicts
  • South Africa;
    • Increasing British presence caused the Dutch settlers (Boer) to journey north (Great Trek), lost Boer War (1899-1902) to the British and came under their control. British and Dutch settlers came into conflict with the great Zulu leader Shaka, who despite several victories, eventually lost the Zulu Wars.
  • United States
    • issued the Declaration of Independence (1776) based on Enlightenment principles (all men created equal). With help of French are able to outlast British, gain independence.
  • Latin America
    • In Haiti (1791)
      • Francois Toussaint L’Overture leds a slave revolt against the French and their poor working conditions in the sugar plantations. Win independence, but struggle economically.
    • Father Miguel de Hidalgo
      • led a peasant uprising in Mexico (1810), but creoles gain control of the revolution and the post independence government.
    • Simon Bolivar (1783)
      • fought throughout South America along with Jose de San Martin against Spain to gain independence.
    • Brazil
      • gains its independence peacefully Dom Pedro I is declared emperor by his father Portuguese King Joao VI. Independence eventually ends slavery, but didn’t help most people, church remains strong.
eastern europe and russia2
Eastern Europe and Russia
  • Catherine the Great (1762-1796)
    • continued Russia expansion and policy of westernization, even does limited enlightenment.
    • After her Russia remains under autocratic rule, expands west and tries to industrialize (Trans-Siberian railroad)
  • Alexander II
    • Avoids European revolutions when Alexander II emancipates the serfs(1861)
  • Crimean War
      • Loss in Crimean War to western backed Ottoman Empire show weakness (1854)
western europe3
Western Europe
  • Industrialization
    • England
      • is 1st to industrialize, had already used enclosure movement to modernize agriculture, use steam engine (James Watt) to apply to mining and textiles. Built factories in cities to house machines, soon new middle and working class start to emerge.
    • Poor working conditions
      • lead to the creation of unions and socialist theory, including Marxism, with the idea of the proletariat (workers) overthrowing the bourgeoisie (upper class). Industry soons spreads to continental Europe and the United States,
  • Imperialism
    • Industrialization also leads to Imperalism to gain wealth, nationalism (pride in one’s nation) emerged, including the idea of social Darwinism, which said that biology made white Europeans superior.
  • French Revolution
    • was caused by unfair estate system, where lower classes had no rights and paid all the taxes. Paris revolt started by the storming of Bastille, Declaration of the Rights of Man and the Citizen issued, King Louis XVI and his wife were executed, eventually led to the Reign of Terror.
    • Napoleon Bonaparte
      • restored order, and as Emperor created an Empire, issued Napoleonic code. Eventually overextended his troops and lost in the Battle of Waterloo. Congress of Vienna restored peach and the monarchies of Europe.
  • New Nation States
    • Italy unified under Count Camillo di Cavour (1860), and Germany unified under Prussian Otto Van Bismarck (1871)
Unit 6
  • Accelerating Global Change and Realignments
    • (1900 - Present)
  • Why start 1900:
    • Begin decline of Western power
  • Why end Present:
    • Globalization
general trends
General Trends
  • World Wars
    • cause decline in Western power, United States and USSR emerge as superpowers,
  • Cold War
    • Superpowers face off in Cold War. Ends when Soviet Union collapses in 1990.
  • Increased migrations
    • Movement of people from less developed to developed nations,
    • Movement of people from rural area to the city (urbanization)
  • Improved health care causes population increase in developing world, but population slows in developed world
  • Women gain new economic and educational opportunities.
  • Increased technology improves communication and globalization.
middle east4
Middle East
  • World War I
    • Britain, in order to gain support, Britain had promised a homeland to both Arabs and Jews in Palestine. After war issued Balfour Declaration, supporting the creation of a Jewish homeland (1917) Jewish migration increased,
  • After World War II
    • Increased Jewish support was won after the holocaust for the creation of the new nation of Israel (1947). Neighboring Arab nations immediately attacked, and there has been conflict ever since.
  • Iran
    • The Iranians revolted against the US back Shah Reza (1979), supporting religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini, imposing strict Islamic law (Sharia).
  • Iraq
    • United States has fought Iraq (Sadam Hussein) in two Persian Gulf Wars.
  • Egypt
    • Anwar Sadat signs historic peace treaty with Israel (1974). Overthrow Hosni Mubarak (2011) as part of the Arab Spring, which also overthrew leaders in Libya (Muammar Gaddafi), Tunisia and Yemen.
east asia4
East Asia
  • China
    • After the fall of the Qing, the revolution of 1911 led to a conflict between nationalists (Chiang Kai-shek) and the communists Mao Tse-tung. China was invaded by Japan in World War II, helping communists win civil war in 1949.
    • Mao
      • set up authoritarian government and Nationalists fled to Taiwan. He instituted economic (Great Leap Forward) and social (Cultural Revolution) reforms.
    • Since Mao’s death
      • leaders have remained communists, but put forth capitalist reforms that have caused the economy to boom. Political dissent is still repressed (Tiananmen Square)
  • Japan
    • Continued to Industrialize and won Russo-Japanese War (1904-5). Fought with Allies in World War I and continued to build up its military.
    • World War II
      • Joined Axis powers (Germany, Italy) for World War II, invaded Korea and China before eventually attacking the United States at Pearl Harbor (1941). By 1942 controlled most of the west Pacific, after lost Battle of Midway lost ground until surrendering after the US dropped the atomic bomb (1945)
    • After World War II
      • Since war has been a peaceful democracy with a booming economy.
  • Korea
    • Became involved in Cold War after WW II when divided between communist north and non- communist south. Still divided today, south has become economic power, while north remains authoritarian.
southeast and south asia
Southeast and South Asia
  • South Asia
    • British Rule
      • Under the leadership of Mohandas Gandhi and the Indian National Congress, Indians moved for independence. Gandhi created a mass movement using non-violent civil disobedience against unjust British rule.
    • Independence
      • After World War British divided up India (Hindu) and Pakistan (Muslim) led by Muhammad Jinah, leading to mass migration and terrible violence. Tensions still exist today, especially over disputed Kashmir region
  • Southeast Asia
    • Vietnam
      • Vietnam fought for independence under the leadership of Ho Chi Minh after WW II against the French. After French were defeated, United States became involved as part of the fight against communism, Vietnam divided between communist north and noncommunist south until United States pulled out (1973) and Ho Chi Minh successfully united the country under communism (1975)
    • Cambodia
      • the communist Khmer Rouge moved into Cambodia and killed 2 million people.
    • Philippines
      • After fighting for indepedence from Spain, fought against US colonization after treaty of Paris ceded land to the US after the Spanish American war. Granted indepence after World War II (1946). Came under military rule, included US backed Filipino dictator Ferdinand Marcos. Opposition leader Benigno Aquino was assassinated, but when Marcos was eventually overthrown his wife Corazon Aquino took over.
  • Indepedence
    • African nations have gained independence since World War II, Kwame Nkrumah (Ghana) and Jomo Kenyatta (Kenya) used strikes, boycotts, and protests to help gain independence. Violence broke out in Rhodesia, Rwanda, Zaire and Angola.
  • In South Africa;
    • independence brought white minority rule and a system of apartheid. The African National Congress led by Nelson Mandela fought for black rule using mostly non violent methods, becoming the 1st black president in 1990. After Independence
  • Since independence
    • new African nations have struggled economically to support their people and with the political boundaries drawn by Europeans, often including ethnic conflicts such as Rwanda, where the majority Hutus led 100-day genocide against the minority Tutsis.
  • Mexico
    • Mexicans revolted against dictator Porfiro Diaz (1910), led by revolutionaries like Pancho Villa and Emiliano Zepata, advocated land reform and a new constitution was written in 1917. The Party of Institutional Revolution (PRI) ruled for next 80 years until Vincente Fox (PAN) won election (2000).
  • Cuba
    • In Cuba US backed dictator Fulgencio Batista was overthrown by a communist revolution led by Fidel Castro. US trained refugees attempted to invade (Bay of Pigs), so USSR put missiles into Cuba (Cuban Missile Crisis) Soviets pulled missiles in exchange for an agreement US wouldn’t invade. Cuba still communists.
  • Other nations
    • in Latin America became involved in the Cold War, with the US backing non communist dictators. Since the end of the Cold War, there has been a move to democratization.
eastern europe and russia3
Eastern Europe and Russia
  • Before World War I
    • Loss of Russo-Japanese War sparked Revolt of 1905. Russia is part of the Allies and fights on the Eastern front.
  • Lenin
    • After years of a lack of success, Tsar Nicholas II is overthrown and a Bolshevik revolutionary Vladimir Lenin wins the civil war. Pulls Russia out of World War II and forms th communist USSR.
  • Stalin
    • After Lenin dies, Joseph Stalin takes over (1924) and establishes a totalitarian state. Industrial production increases with his 5 year plans, farms are collectivized, kulaks (wealthy peasants and political opponents are purged. Leads Soviet Union in World War II and the start of the Cold War, setting up puppet communist regimes in Eastern Europe as a buffer zone from the west. When Stalin dies (1953),
  • After Stalin
    • Nikita Khrushchev takes over, starts a Destalinization campaign, eases tension with west until Cuban Missile crisis. Mikhail Gorbachev (1985) took over and began a political (glasnost) and economic (perestroika) restructuring.
  • Fall of USSR and Communism
    • increased freedoms eventually caused the fall of communism, and Boris Yeltsin took over. In Eastern Europe Lech Walesa led the union Solidarity to push for reforms, the Berlin Wall fell and Germany was reunited. When the USSR collapsed many new nations were formed in Eastern Europe, and Warsaw pact nations distanced themselves from Russia. While democracy was also introduced in Russia, Vladimir Putin has taken over and sent troops into part of the Ukraine.
western europe4
Western Europe
  • World War I
    • Rise in nationalism leads to militarism and an alliance system that causes World War I after Austrian Archduke Ferdinand is assassinated. Allies (Britain, France Russia) battle Central Powers (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Ottoman Empire) to a 4 year stalemate (trench warfare), new weapons (machine guns, poison gas, airplanes, tanks) lead to high casualties. In 1917 US enters and Russia withdraws, Allies win and Treaty of Versailles punishes Germany. Ineffective League of Nations is formed, world wide Depression leads to rise of Totalitarian rule, Fascists in Italy (Mussolini) and Nazis in Germany (Hitler).
  • World War II
    • Expansion and appeasement eventually lead to World War II when Germany invades Poland, after fall of France, Britain alone and hangs on to win Battle of Britain. Hitler turns east to invade Russia because of his communist hatred, and tries to exterminate Jews (Holocaust). Germans turned back by harsh winter and Russian troops in Battle of Stalingrad, Allies invade Normandy (D-Day) on the west. Hitler eventually commits suicide and Germany surrenders.
  • Post World War II
    • After war Germany is divided, and Europe becomes involved in Cold War. Since the end of the Cold War there has been increased political and economic cooperation (European Union)