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Organizational Behavior: Stress Management. What is Stress?. An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being. . General Adaptation Syndrome. Stage 1 Alarm Reaction. Stage 2 Resistance. Stage 3 Exhaustion. Normal Level of

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Organizational Behavior:Stress Management

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

what is stress
What is Stress?

An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person’s well-being

.

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

general adaptation syndrome
General Adaptation Syndrome

Stage 1

Alarm Reaction

Stage 2

Resistance

Stage 3

Exhaustion

Normal

Level of

Resistance

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

stressors and stress outcomes

Individual

Differences

Consequences

of Stress

Physiological

Behavioral

Psychological

Stress

Nonwork

Stressors

Stressors and Stress Outcomes

Work

Stressors

Physical

environment

Role-related

Interpersonal

Organizational

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

role related stressors
Role-Related Stressors
  • Role conflict
    • Interrole conflict
    • Intrarole conflict
    • Person-role conflict
  • Role ambiguity
    • Uncertain duties, authority
  • Workload
    • Too much/too little work
  • Taskcontrol
    • Machine pacing
    • Monitoring equipment
    • No work schedule control

..

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

interpersonal stressor workplace violence and bullying
Interpersonal Stressor: Workplace Violence and Bullying

1- Workplace violence is a stressor to those who:

    • Experience violence at work
    • Observe violence at work
    • Work in jobs with higher risk of violence

2-Workplace Bullying: Offensive, intimidating, or humiliating behavior that degrades, ridicules, or insults another person at work.

  • Workplace bullies tend to be people with higher authority
  • Workplace bullying is reduced through:
    • Careful hiring
    • 360-degree feedback
    • Conflict resolution system

3- Sexual Harassment : Unwelcome conduct -- detrimental effect on work environment or job performance

  • Quid pro quo
    • employment or job performance is conditional on unwanted sexual relations
  • Hostile work environment
    • an intimidating, hostile, or offensive working environment

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

work nonwork stressors
Work-Nonwork Stressors
  • Time-based conflict
    • due to work schedule, commuting, travel
    • women still do “second shift” (most housework)
  • Strain -based conflict
    • work stress affects home, and vice versa
  • Role behavior conflict
    • incompatible work and nonwork roles

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

stress and occupations
Stress and Occupations

Accountant

Artist

Mechanic

Forester

Hospital manager

Physician (GP)

Psychologist

School principal

Police officer

Tel. operator

U.S. and Iran

President

Waiter/waitress

Low-Stress

Occupations

Medium-Stress

Occupations

High-Stress

Occupations

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

individual differences in stress
Individual Differences in Stress
  • Perceive the situation differently
    • Self-efficacy
    • Locus of control
    • Scarlet personality
    • Learned helplessness
  • Different threshold levels of resistance to stressor
    • Store of energy
  • Use different stress coping strategies

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

type a type b behavior pattern
Talks rapidly

Is devoted to work

Is highly competitive

Struggles to perform several tasks

Has a strong sense of time urgency

Is impatient with idleness

Loses temper easily

Interrupts others

Handles details patiently

Is less competitive with others

Contemplates issues carefully

Has a low concern about time limitations

Doesn't feel guilty about relaxing

Has a relaxed approach to life

Works at a steady pace

Type A / Type B Behavior Pattern

Type B Behavior Pattern

Type A Behavior Pattern

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

consequences of distress
Consequences of Distress
  • Physiological consequences
    • cardiovascular diseases
    • ulcers, sexual dysfunction, headaches, cancer
  • Behavioral consequences
    • work performance, accidents, decisions
    • absenteeism -- due to sickness and flight
    • workplace aggression
  • Psychological Consequences
    • moodiness, depression, emotional fatigue

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

job burnout process

Emotional

Exhaustion

Physiological,

psychological,

and behavioral

consequences

Depersonalization

Reduced Personal

Accomplishment

Job Burnout Process

Interpersonal and

Role-Related Stressors

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

family friendly and work life initiatives
Family-Friendly and Work-Life Initiatives
  • Flexible work time
  • Job sharing
  • Telecommuting
  • Personal leave
  • Childcare facilities

.

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.

other stress management practices
Other Stress Management Practices
  • Withdrawing from the stressor
    • Permanent -- transfer to better fit job
    • Temporary -- work breaks, vacations
  • Changing stress perceptions
    • Self-efficacy, self-leadership
  • Controlling stress consequences
    • Fitness and lifestyle programs
    • Relaxation and meditation
    • Employee counseling
  • Social support
    • Emotional and informational

Gholipour A. 2005. Organizational Behavior. University of Tehran.