1 / 64

An Introduction to Hard-Disk Drives

An Introduction to Hard-Disk Drives. Adopted from Seagate Tutorial at FAST’07. Agenda. Background New Technologies Research Works Useful Links. Background. The first hard drive of IBM’s RAMAC in 1956. Background. 5MB Hard Disk in 1956. Background. A typical SCSI hard drive. Background.

Download Presentation

An Introduction to Hard-Disk Drives

An Image/Link below is provided (as is) to download presentation Download Policy: Content on the Website is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use and may not be sold / licensed / shared on other websites without getting consent from its author. Content is provided to you AS IS for your information and personal use only. Download presentation by click this link. While downloading, if for some reason you are not able to download a presentation, the publisher may have deleted the file from their server. During download, if you can't get a presentation, the file might be deleted by the publisher.


Presentation Transcript

  1. An Introduction to Hard-Disk Drives Adopted from Seagate Tutorial at FAST’07

  2. Agenda • Background • New Technologies • Research Works • Useful Links

  3. Background The first hard drive of IBM’s RAMAC in 1956

  4. Background 5MB Hard Disk in 1956

  5. Background A typical SCSI hard drive

  6. Background Read/Write Head Movement

  7. Background Close-up of a hard disk head

  8. Background

  9. Background

  10. Background

  11. Background

  12. Background

  13. Background

  14. Background Hard drive Internals

  15. Background A hard disk surface with 3 zones

  16. Background On-board disk drive logic

  17. Background Disk drive module

  18. Background Higher BPI & TPI, Higher capacity

  19. Background Areal Density vs. Moore’s Law

  20. Background Seagate Products in 2006

  21. Background Response time = Seek Time + Rotation Latency + Xfer Time

  22. Background

  23. Background

  24. Background • First-in, first-out (FIFO)

  25. Background • Shortest Service Time First

  26. Background • SCAN

  27. Background • C-SCAN

  28. Background

  29. Background

  30. Background

  31. Background

  32. Background

  33. Background

  34. Standard 512 byte Format Servo Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Servo Data 4 Non-Standard Format (allows for post amble check field) Servo Data 1 Data 2 Data 3 Data 3 Servo Data 4 Background • Industry has standardized on 512 byte sectors • H/w and s/w optimized for efficiency, cost and µP loading • Manufacturing geared up for “vanilla” processes and production • Problems with changing the sector size: • More buffering required to handle the additional data • More complex f/w requiring additional memory storage • More complex split sector handling/computation required • More complicated/costly media flaw mapping process

  35. Background

  36. Background

  37. Background

  38. Background

  39. New Techniques • IntelliSeek (Western Digital) • GreenPower (Western Digital) • Hybrid Disk (Samsung & Seagate) • Background Media Scan(BMS) (Seagate) • Idle Read After Write(IRAW) (Seagate)

  40. IntelliSeek • Ideas • WD's IntelliSeek technology proactively calculates an optimum seek speed to eliminate hasty movement of the actuator that produces noise and requires power • With IntelliSeek, the actuator's movement is controlled so the head reaches the next target sector just in time to read the next piece of information, rather than rapidly accelerating and waiting for the drive rotation to catch up.

  41. IntelliSeek • http://www.wdc.com/en/flash/index.asp?family=intelliseek

  42. GreenPower • IntelliPower™ • A fine-tuned balance of spin speed, transfer rate, and caching algorithms designed to deliver both significant power savings and solid performance. For each drive model, WD may use a different, invariable RPM. • IntelliPark™ • Delivers lower power consumption by automatically unloading recording heads during idle to reduce aerodynamic drag, and disengages read/write channel electronics.

  43. Hybrid Disk • First, Hybrid HDD has flash memory playing a supplementary role to DRAM in order to dramatically reduce the boot time and improve system capacity. • Secondly, Hybrid HDD enables write-caching of regular data using flash memory in order to minimize the need for the hard disk drive to spin-up. • Thirdly, Hybrid HDD offers improved durability and reliability. Insofar as the need for the HDD to spin-up is minimized, this also serves to shorten the duty cycle of the HDD, lowering the probability of head-media collisions and errors (off-track write, etc). This can lead to increasing the MTBF.

  44. Hybrid Disk

  45. BMS & IRAW • The second generation of Seagate-exclusive Background Media Scan (BMS) proactively scans the media for potential defects during drive idle time. It enables incipient errors to be corrected before data is lost. • Seagate-exclusive IRAW (Idle Read After Write) enhances data protection by verifying—during drive idle time—that data in the drive buffer was properly written.

  46. Research Projects • Multi-Zones • FreeBlock Scheduling • Track-Aligned Extent • Multimap

  47. Multi-Zones • PROFS (MASCOT ‘01) • Performance-Oriented Data Reorganization for Log-structured File System on Multi-Zone Disks • Ideas • reorganizes data on the disk during LFS garbage collection and system idle periods • puts active data in the faster zones and inactive data in the slower zones

  48. Freeblock Scheduling • SIGMOD ‘00, OSDI ‘00, FAST ‘02, FAST ’04 • Ideas • a new approach to utilizing more of a disk's potential media bandwidth by filling rotational latency periods with useful media transfers • By interleaving low priority disk activity with the normal workload, one can replace many foreground rotational latency delays with useful background media transfers.

More Related