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Using Manure for Row Crop Production Edwin Ritchey Extension Soil Specialist UK-REC
“Organic” Amendments • Animal Manures • Processed Municipal Waste – “be in front of the line” • Louisville Green (5-3-0) • Separate solids, anaerobic digesters, dewatered in centrifuges, heat dried in rotary drums • Warren County has a “new” operation on-line • Lime stabilized waste (many are giving away) • Composted Products • Decomposition process that reduces the volume and produces a stabilized product • Concentrates some nutrients, not others
Manure and Compost = $$$ • Animal Manure is a complete fertilizer • Calculate value based on N-P-K • But more value than just N-P-K • Ca, Mg, S, B, Mo, Zn, Cu, and “other” • Hard to measure “other” – but I am trying!!! • Increased OM, improved structure, improved tilth, and plant available water • Must be aware of mineralization rates and loss mechanisms
Value of Nutrients in Manure • Bulk fertilizer prices per ton (10-12-12) • Urea (46-0-0) $790 (N=$0.86/lb N) • KCl (0-0-60) $597 (K2O=$0.54/lb K) • DAP (18-46-0) $649 • if only considered N= $1.80/lb N • if only considered P= $0.71/lb P2O5 • accounting for N in DAP = $0.37/lb P2O5 • Must consider what nutrients are needed • Value = $62.43/ton adjusted for availability • (assuming 55-55-45 and 50, 80, and 100% availability)
Value of Nutrients in Manure • Bulk fertilizer prices per ton (10-2-13) • Urea (46-0-0) $460 (N=$0.50/lb N) • KCl (0-0-60) $445 (K2O=$0.37/lb K) • DAP (18-46-0) $500 • if only considered N= $1.39/lb N • if only considered P= $0.54/lb P2O5 • accounting for N in DAP = $0.35/lb P2O5 • Must consider what nutrients are needed • Value = $51.51/ton adjusted for availability • (assuming 55-55-45 and 50, 80, and 100% availability)
Nutrient Variation - N • Mineralization (Organic N NH4+) • Warm, moist, and O2 • Ammonia loss (NH3) • Warm, wet, and windy • Nitrification (NH4+ NO3-) • NH4+ present, warm, moist, and O2 • Denitrification (NO3- NO2- NO N20 N2) • NO3- , waterlogged soils, available carbon, and warm • Leaching (NO3-)
Nitrogen Rate DeterminationIS UK RECOMMENDING ENOUGH N? • Based on crop response for: different drainage classes, tillage practice, and crop history • Crop needs differ (e.g. corn vs. wheat) • Drainage class: well drained soil requires less N than poorly drained soil • Not based on yield goals, no difference in most instances (exception-irrigated fields?)
Specific Research Results The Use of Organic Soil Amendments for Wheat and Corn Production
Considerations • Time of poultry houses cleanout • Mainly Spring and Fall • Other organic sources • Composts – Between planting and harvest • Processed Municipal Waste – Year round • Nutrient availabilities – Varies • Due to type of material, timing, application and storage method, mineralization rates, etc
Nitrogen Availability (PL) Crop Management* Availability (%) Corn or Spring Applied Annual Grass 2 days 60 5-6 days 50 > 7 days <45 Fall Applied No Cover Crop 15 Cover Crop 50 Wheat Preplant 50 Pasture (cool) Spring/Fall 80 * Incorporation with tillage or > 0.5 inches of rain (AGR-146)
Methods • Zanesville Silt Loam (2011) • Applied PL, LG, CSM based on Total N • Assumed 100% available • 100, 150, and 200 lbs total N/A for wheat • 100, 200, and 300 lbs total N/A for corn • 4 Rates of inorganic N plus non-treated check • 0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 lbs N/A for wheat • 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 lbs N/A for corn
2011 Results (LSD = 6.7) † Availabilities are compared to commercial fertilizer N response data. Slight differences in equivalent urea-N and subsequent availabilities are attributed to the variation in the fitted line verses the actual response.
2012 Results (LSD = 15.6) † Availabilities are compared to commercial fertilizer N response data. Slight differences in equivalent urea-N and subsequent availabilities are attributed to the variation in the fitted line verses the actual response.
What do these results mean? • Need more information • N availability varies (between and within products) • Probably not 50% N availability with wheat and corn when surface applied • Incorporation with tillage??? • Are they still a good deal??? • Put a pencil to it and consider other benefits
If not Yield then What? • Soil Organic Matter • Resistance to compaction • Residual Nitrogen • Infiltration/Structure – infiltrometer • Plant Available Water – pressure plate • Other Benefits???
Experimental Design 16 reps. 32 reps.
Other Considerations • The environment (DOW, EPA, DAQ) • “Though shall not pollute” • Utilize setbacks • Neighbors (Good fences make good neighbors) • Good neighbors make good neighbors • Litter was stockpiled and later applied • Producer was told to incorporate or $25,000 fine • 401 KAR 53:101 – mix 1 part “polluted air” with 7 parts of filtered air and if odor is detected then in violation
Conclusions • More information is needed for KY • Organic amendments are a good source of plant nutrients, but… • Optimize nutrients present (DAP for N) • Test soil, test manure • Availabilities vary between and within sources • Be considerate of environment and neighbors