Game Based Learning. Presented by: Flora Liu Richard Shi Rong Hu Sandra Law. Game Based Learning. Definitions. Definitions of game Organized play that provides enjoyment and pleasure (Prensky, 2001)
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Game Based Learning Presented by: Flora Liu Richard Shi Rong Hu Sandra Law
Game Based Learning Definitions • Definitions of game • Organized play that provides enjoyment and pleasure (Prensky, 2001) • "A set of activities involving one or more players”. Characteristics: goals, constraints, payoffs and consequences. rule-guided and artificial, in some respects. Has a competitive aspect, even if the competition is with oneself" (Dempsey et al., 1996:2 in Mitchell and Savill-Smith, 2004: 2).
Game Based Learning Definitions • Definition of an educational game • An educational game is a game designed to instruct individuals on a particular subject or help them learn a skill as they play. • Definition of game based learning • An approach to learning that utilizes games/game-based environments to create learning activities that are intrinsically motivating, challenging, and immersive, with the goal of producing learning outcomes that can be objectively measured and quantified.
Game Based Learning Cognitive Style Changes • Twitch vs. conventional speed • Parallel processing vs. linear processing • Graphics first vs. text first • Random access vs. step by step • Connected vs. standalone • Active vs. passive • Play vs. work • Payoff vs. patience • Fantasy vs. reality • Technology-as-friend vs. technology-as-foe
Game Based Learning Theory • Immersive activity that promotes a phenomenon • called flow • Games invoke a state of flow in players by placing • them in the same psychological space as their virtual • counterparts (game characters) • Offer re-contextualized learning environments • Games have been used to explore various • theoretical models of learning, i.e. problem-based, • situated cognition, cognitive load, experiential, • activity and play theory, cognitive disequilibrium, etc. • Collaborative learning/social ecologies
Game Based Learning Current Approaches • Apply the features of games/game play that are most absorbing and implement these techniques in the classroom. • Design educational games that are as engaging as entertainment oriented video games. • Identify educational value of commercial games. • Use the structures and activities that games provide as architecture for designing more effective “real world” activities, e.g. collaborative learning, health or social planning
Game Based Learning Draft of Practice • Educational Value of GBL Environments • Community/Collaboration/Social Interaction • Distributed Learning/Cognition • Bridge
Game Based Learning Draft of Practice • Guidelines in the Classroom • Select games on the basis of genre, accessibility, and • extensibility • Design assignments that build bridges between • domains • Role of the instructor • Potential for addiction
Game Based Learning Draft of Practice • Examples: • Everquest and Ethnography (Delwiche, 2006) • Second Life and Game design and Criticism (Delwiche, • 2006) • RollerCoaster Tycoon and a physics-orientated lesson • (Farming High School) • Simulation games and training (Kirriemuir & • McFarlane, 2003; John & Ceangal, 2004). • Serious games and worldwide troubles (Redmond, • 2006)
Game Based Learning Some Strengths vs. Weaknesses
Game Based Learning Some Design Considerations • Embed content in the game in a contextually relevant way • Apply incidental learning of gaming strategies to an • intentional learning task • Support diversity by designing for a wide range of • aptitudes and abilities • Create games that foster problem-solving • Design environments based on learning principles • used in effective classrooms • Focus on structure of the game not content • Understand game play and do not underestimate its • importance • Accommodate emerging technologies
Game Based Learning Food Force www.food-force.com Food Force has been played by at least four million people since its launch by the United Nations division in April 2005. Last April, Food Force was translated into a number of languages including Polish, Japanese and Italian. Hungarian, Chinese, French, Greek, Hindi and Arabic translations are planned in the near future. (http://www.seriousgamessource.com/item.php?story=10198)
Game Based Learning Description • Created by the United Nations World Food Program (WFP) • Developed to help children learn about world hunger • Widely used in primary school social study class • What can Food Force video game teach? • What is hunger and who are the hungry? • Why are people hungry and malnourished? • What can we do to help end hunger? • Players have to tackle a series of missions. Each mission requires different skills • The game consists of 6 missions
Game Based Learning Description of Missions Mission One – Air Surveillance Task: Pilot a helicopter and survey the scene to locate and count how many people need feeding – all against the clock! Purpose: Analyze the causes of hunger and malnutritionthereby improving students’ ability of research. Mission One – Energy Pacs Task: Find the right combination of these food items (rice, beans, vegetable oil, sugar & iodised salt) to create a nutritious and balanced diet –at a target cost of 30¢ US per person per meal! Purpose: Understand how to distribute nutrition and the cost of feeding the hungry – encourages critical and creative thinking ability.
Game Based Learning Description of Missions Mission Three - Airdrop Task: Make the drops accurately, without risking human lives. Purpose: Understand WFP’s emergency response – demonstrates how international organizations support communities in need throughout the world. Mission Four – Locate and Dispatch Task: Complete the logistics puzzle and fill up Sheylan’s food supply chain for the next 6 months. Purpose: Distribution of food around the world (buying and selling). Allows students to develop understanding of geography
Game Based Learning Description of Missions Mission Five – The Food Run Task: Player is responsible for making sure a convoy of WFP trucks arrive safely at the feeding centre. Purpose: Overcome land obstacles to deliver food – practice decision making and problem solving. Mission Six – Future Farming Task: Ensure Sheylan can provide enough food for itself, that people are healthy, and the community has the infrastructure to grow. Purpose: Help a country feed itself – develop ability to think historically
Game Based Learning Playing the Game • Each mission begins with a briefing by one of the Food • Force characters, who explains the challenge ahead. • The player has to complete the task for which points • are awarded for fast and accurate play and good • decision making.
Game Based Learning System Requirements • PC: Win 95/98/2000/ME/XP • This game requires the installation of QuickTime • Installers for QuickTime are packaged in the Food • Force Installer
Game Based Learning Features • Multi-language versions. • Different styles of game play appeal to children of all • abilities. • Each mission represents a key step of the food delivery • process – from emergency response through to building • long-term food security for a community. • Following each mission a Food Force character presents an • educational video showing the reality of WFP’s work in the field, • allowing children to learn understand how the WFP responds • to actual food emergencies: sources of food, nutritional • content of food, how food is delivered and used to encourage • development.
Game Based Learning Immersive Education • Kar2ouche is a game developed with research from • Oxford University’s department of Education. • It’s a multi-award-winning system offers over 50 subject • specific titles available to buy individually or as part of • bundle. • www.imed.co.uk/kar2ouche
Game Based Learning Immersive Education • Students compose role-plays, storyboards, movies and • animations onscreen in minutes using drag and drop • features. • Benefits to students include: • - encourages creative self-expression • - allows learners to develop story-telling abilities • - collaboration, peer discussion and debate • - flexible software that can adapt to any topic in the • curriculum • Kar2ouche video demo
Game Based Learning Gazillionaire • Gazillionaire is a game of business strategy using the • metaphor of an intergalactic economic system. • Sophisticated real-world economic tools helps players, • who take the part of corporations/traders, to maximize • profits as they build a trading empire.
Game Based Learning Gazillionaire • Provides players with the option of playing at a variety of • levels: tutorial*, novice*, beginner*, intermediate**, • expert**, and master** • * certain functionalities are not available with free version • ** higher levels are not available with free version • Provides corporate history/fiscal status of all companies, a • breakdown of human players company’s fiscal ‘health’, • market value of product, supply by planet
Game Based Learning Gazillionaire • The design of the game provides the player with • numerous choices and adds complexity to the game as • play continues and the player progresses (i.e. opportunity • to purchase investments, to upgrade the ship, expand • warehouse capacity, etc.) • Feedback is provided in context (i.e. run out of fuel, go • bankrupt, need to repay loan before leaving planet)
Game Based Learning Emerging Trends • Social interaction in Game Based Learning environments • Multiplayer role-playing games • Blended learning • Pedagogical agents embedded in games • New communication technologies
Game Based Learning Unanswered questions • What are the educational features of games? • What social and conceptual skills do games actually • improve? • Does the kind of learning that takes place in games • transfer to other contexts? • What kinds of outcomes should be used to signal • learning?
Game Based Learning Next Steps • Learning activities • Resources