Piarc tc c 2 3 cost effectiveness of safety measures and allocation of resources
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PIARC TC C.2.3: Cost-Effectiveness of Safety Measures and Allocation of Resources. State of Michigan Time of Return Safety Calculation. Larry E. Tibbits Michigan Department of Transportation Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. T ime o f R eturn (TOR). It is one type of cost benefit tool

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Piarc tc c 2 3 cost effectiveness of safety measures and allocation of resources

PIARC TC C.2.3:Cost-Effectiveness of Safety Measures and Allocation of Resources

State of Michigan Time of Return Safety Calculation

Larry E. Tibbits

Michigan Department of Transportation

Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia


T ime o f r eturn tor
Time of Return (TOR)

  • It is one type of cost benefit tool

  • Estimates benefits (reducing crashes/injuries/deaths)

  • Output: the number of years required to recover the safety investment

  • Based upon Roy Jorgensen’s report on Highway Safety Improvement Criteria


Why use tor
Why Use TOR

  • Federal Highway Safety Improvement Program requires that we invest safety dollars where they are needed most – where we get the greatest return

  • Helps prioritize competing safety projects

  • Verifies how the safety fix matches the demonstrated safety problem


Crash data
Crash Data

  • Crash type

  • Number of crashes

  • Property damage only + minor injury (B, C)

  • Number of A injuries or number killed (people)

  • Each incident is one crash


Tor components
TOR Components

  • Estimated costs of deaths and injuries from U.S. National Safety Council (http://www.nsc.org/)

  • Estimated benefits resulting from reducing crashes

  • Traffic volumes

  • Reduction in fatalities and A injuries combined

  • Reduction in minor (no A injuries or fatalities) crashes


Tor components1
TOR Components

  • Q factor to blend the impact of fatalities and A injuries

  • Estimated project costs

  • Number of years of crash data used (3-5)

  • Area Factor - Urban, rural, and between


The calculation
The Calculation

  • Roy Jorgensen's Formula

    BTOTAL = ADTa/ADTbx/

    (QxR1+(PDOCOSTxR2))

  • BTOTAL = Total benefit in dollars over years used

  • ADTa = Average traffic volume after the improvement (assumed)

  • ADTb = Average traffic volume before the improvement


The calculation continued
The Calculation (Continued)

  • R1 = Reduction in fatalities and A-injuries combined

  • R2 = Reduction in minor (no A-injuries or fatalities) crashes

  • Q = [FATCOST+((I/FxINJCOST]/1+(I/F]


Thank You

http://www.michigan.gov/tands


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