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UNIT 5: PHOTOSYNTHESIS. PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS FLOWERING PLANTS AS PHOTOSYNTHESIZERS PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS PLANTS AS SOLAR ENERGY CONVERTERS THE ORGANIZATION OF THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE. PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS .

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unit 5 photosynthesis
UNIT 5: PHOTOSYNTHESIS

PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMSFLOWERING PLANTS AS PHOTOSYNTHESIZERSPROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESISPLANTS AS SOLAR ENERGY CONVERTERSTHE ORGANIZATION OF THE THYLAKOID MEMBRANE.

photosynthetic organisms
PHOTOSYNTHETIC ORGANISMS
  • Include all land plants, algae such as kelp, Euglena, diatoms and cyanobacteria.
  • They are called autotrophs : Organisms that aren’t dependent on other organisms, they produce their own food.
  • They are producers that have the ability to synthesize carbohydrates, feed not only themselves but also consumers.
  • Collectively consumers are called: heterotrophs.
slide3

Autotrophsand heterotrophsuse organic molecules produced by photosynthesis as a source of building blocks for growth and repair and as a source of chemical energy for cellular work.

  • By-product of photosynthesizers is oxygen–
  • Oxygen is required by organisms for cellular respiration.
  • Oxygen rises high into the atmosphere, where it forms an ozoneshield that filters out ultraviolet radiation and makes terrestrial life possible.
slide4

Fossil fuel: Is coal formed by plants that died many year ago.

  • Ethanol is produced by the fermentationof plants and can be used to fuel cars or as an additive to gasoline.

EUGLENA

EUGLENA

KELP

CYANOBACTERIA

flowering plants as photosinthesizers
FLOWERING PLANTS AS PHOTOSINTHESIZERS
  • Photosynthesis takes place in the green portionsof the plant.
  • Leaves have mesophyll tissuecontaining chloroplasts (organelle in plant cell in which photosynthesis occurs)
  • The raw materialsof photosynthesis are:

water,

carbon dioxide and

sunlight.

slide6

Water is absorbed through the root hairinto the xylem of the roots, into the xylem of the stem, through the xylem of the leaves into the mesophyll cells and finally into the chloroplasts.

  • Carbon dioxide diffuses from the atmosphere through the stomata, into the intercellular airspacesin the leaves, and finally into the chloroplasts of the mesophyll cells.
  • The chlorophyll and other pigments in the thylakoid membrane absorb the solar energy to drive photosynthesis .
process of photosynthesis
PROCESS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS
  • Consists of 2 sets of reactions:

1. Light reaction (Dependent of light, occur in thylakoids of chloroplast, Raw materials are: Water and solar energy. End products are: oxygen[released to the atmosphere], NADPH and ATP [used in Calvin Cycle])

2. Calvin Cycle/ Dark Phase (Independent of light, occur in stroma of chloroplast, Raw materials: Carbon dioxide and NADPH and ATP from light phase. End products: Carbohydrates).

light reaction
Light reaction
  • Solar energy is absorbed by the chlorophyll pigments in the thylakoid membranes.
  • The electrons of the chlorophyll pigments are activated.
  • This energy is used to:

- Split water (taken by the roots,

transported through the xylem to

the leaves) – 2H2O O2 + 2H2 –

The oxygen is released into the

atmosphere through the stomata.

Process called: photolysis

- The hydrogen is picked up by a

hydrogen acceptor e.g. NADP to form

NADPH.

- Bond ADP (in Thylakoid) to a phosphate

(in thylakoid) to form ATP (energy containing molecule). Process called: photophosphorylation