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Agenda. 1. QUIZ 2. HOMEWORK LAST CLASS 3. HOMEWORK NEXT CLASS 4. dBs, NYQUIST & SHANNON 5. NOISE 6. TRANSISSION LINES 7. FIBER 8. ISDN 9. DSL 10. Cable Modems 11. LANS & MANS. Homework Last Week. Network. Users. Management Decision. Configuration Data.

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agenda
Agenda

1. QUIZ

2. HOMEWORK LAST CLASS

3. HOMEWORK NEXT CLASS

4. dBs, NYQUIST & SHANNON

5. NOISE

6. TRANSISSION LINES

7. FIBER

8. ISDN

9. DSL

10. Cable Modems

11. LANS & MANS

homework last week
Homework Last Week

Network

Users

Management

Decision

Configuration Data

New Technology

Performance & Traffic Data

TT Restoration

Engineering Group

Network Planning

and Design

Operations Group

NOC

Network Operations

I & M Group

Network Installation

and Maintenance

Fault TT

Installation

slide3

Centralized Architecture

Central

Manager

Internet

Central

Database

homework centralized arch
Homework Centralized Arch

Network

Users

Management

Decision

Configuration Data

Performance & Traffic Data

Latency, Capacity & Avail-

ability summaries

New Technology

TT Restoration

Engineering Group

Network Planning

and Design

Operations Group

NOC

Network Operations

I & M Group

Network Installation

and Maintenance

Fault TT

Installation

Accounting Management Data

Security Management Data

slide5

Hierarchial Architecture

Network

Management

Server

Network

Management

Client

Internet

DBMS

Network

Management

Client

Network

Management

Client

slide6

Distributed Architecture

DBMS

Internet

Replication

Comm

DBMS

DBMS

DBMS

homework p 1 of 3
Homework-P 1 of 3

A company has a corporate network which consists of five

Ethernet LANs connected to a mainframe through 56 KBps

lines. Each LAN has about 20 workstations which generate

one message per second. Each message is 1000 bytes (8

bits per byte). Most workstations interact with each other on

their LANs with only 20% of the messages being sent to the

mainframe. The messages sent to the mainframe access a

corporate database which services 50 I/O per second. How

much of a congestion problem exists on the LAN, the WAN

and the mainframe database.

homework p 2 of 3
Homework P 2 of 3

An Advise To The Lovelorn database operates on a T-1 line.

The average input is 1000 bytes of questions. The average

output has 1Million bytes of answers. Database processing

time averages 3 seconds. What is the total response time if

you assume 8 bits per byte.

homework p 3 of 3
Homework P 3 of 3

Ping ns1.bangla.net. How many packets were lost?

What was the response time?

Now do a trace rout and see how many hops it takes to get

to get to ns1.bangla.net.

decibells logarithms
Decibells & Logarithms

Converting watts to dB (or milliwatts to dBm):

10 log10 1000 watts = 30 dBw

Converting dB to watts (or dBm to milliwatts):

30 dBw = log-1, or log-1 (3) or 10 raised

to the 3rd power = 103 = 1000 watts

35 dBw = 103.5 = 3162.3 watts

Note: There’s a point between the 3 & 5.

decibells logarithms1
Decibells & Logarithms

dBW Watts

-3 .5

0 1

3 2

6 4

9 8

10 10

20 100

30 1000

40 10000

physical layer
Physical Layer

Wire & Fiber

nyquist
Nyquist

1. Nyquist: The maximum practical data rate (samples) per channel.

Max R = 2 H log2 V

Logarithmic function to the base 2: For each # V, log V = the exponent to which 2 must be raised to produce V. Then if V = 16, the log2 of V = 4. If V = 2, the log2 of V = 1.

Then what is the maximum practical data rate for BPSK signal on a line with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz?

What is the maximum practical data rate for a QPSK

signal on a line with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz?

shannon
Shannon

Shannon: The maximum theoretical data rate per channel.

Max R = CBW x log2 (1 + S/N)

[CBW = H in Nyquist Theorem]

Then what is the maximum practical data rate for signal with a 30 dB S/N on a line with a bandwidth of 3000 Hz?

noise
Noise

T = SNT = System Noise Temperature

No = Noise Density = kT, where k is Boltzmann’s Constant (-228.6 dBw)

N = Noise Power = kTB, where B is bandwidth.

transmission lines
Transmission Lines

We understand transmission lines by oversimplifying them:

a. Lump all resistances into a single large resistance.

b. Lump all inductances into a single large inductance.

c. Lump all capacitances into a single large capacitance.

d. Lump all conductance (leakage) into a single large conductance.

e. Assume perfectly uniform construction and perfect symmetry so it

looks exactly the same from both ends.

f. Lump all of the above into a simple impedance network and

assume stability.

transmission lines2
Transmission Lines

Impedance mismatches (impedance of load does not equal

impedance of the line) result in a standing wave ratio (how much

energy is reflected back to the transmitter).

transmission line connector distortion
Transmission Line Connector Distortion

Normal Power Level: - 120 dBm

Problem Power Level +/- 10 dB

Linear

Non-Linear

fiber optics
Fiber Optics

Attenuation: Light loss due to both scattering and absorption.

Absorption: The amount of light loss due to its conversion to heat.

Scattering: The disappearance of light due to its leaving the core of

of a fiber.

Chromatic dispersion: The tendency of a fiber to cause slightly

differing wavelengths of emitted light to travel through

the fiber at different speeds.

(See Handout)

integrated services digital network isdn standard
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Standard

1. A major TELCO attempt to integrate voice and non-voice services.

2. Integrated multiple channels interleaved with time division multiplexing.

A - 4 KHz analog telephone channel

B - 64 Kbps digital PCM channel for voice or data

C - 8 or 16 Kbps digital channel

D - 16 Kbps digital channel for out of band signalling

E - 64 Kbps channel for internal ISDN signalling

H - 384, 1536, or 1920 Kbps digital channel

Basic Rate = 2B + 1D (the nominal 128 frequently used in homes)

Primary Rate = 23 B + 1D

integrated services digital network isdn standard1
Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) Standard

S

T

U

NT1

ISDN

Exchange

S

TE 1 ISDN Terminal

S

ISDN PBX

TE 1 ISDN Telephone

R

TA

Non-ISDN Terminal

R, S, T & U are CCITT defined reference Points

TA is terminal adapter

digital subscriber line dsl standard
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Standard
  • Drivers:
  • ISDN didn’t capture significant market share for TELCOs
  • Higher speed applications require new technologies
  • Users want to stay connected longer
  • High cost of converting infrastructure
  • Telephone lines weren’t designed to provide simultaneous
  • digital and analog services
  • Competition from satellite (e.g., DirectTV/Direct PC) & cable
  • industry
digital subscriber line dsl standard services
Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) Standard Services

Type DSL Speed

Asymmetric DSL 1.5 to 8 Mbps to user

16 to 640 Kbps to network

High-data-rate DSL 1.544 Mbps to and from user

Single-line DSL 768 Kbps full duplex on a pair

Rate-adaptive DSL 1.5 to 8 Mbps to user

16 to 640 Kbps to network

(can adjust speeds)

Consumer DSL 1 Mbps to user

16 to 128 Kbps to network

(does not include splitter)

ISDN DSL Basic ISDN rate

Very-high-data-rate DSL 13 to 52 Mbps to user

1.5 to 6 Mbps to network

dsl rates using 24 gauge wire
DSL Rates (using 24 gauge wire)

Connection Max Data Rate Distance Limit

ADSL 1.5-8 Mbps downstream 12-18 K feet

Up to 1.544 Mbps upstream

HDSL T1 - 1.544 Mbps (4 wire) 12,000 feet

IDSL 144 Kbps (symmetric) 18,000 feet (36 w rptr)

SDSL T1 - 1.544 Mbps (2 wire) 11,000 feet

VDSL 13-52 Mbps downstream 1-4.5 K feet

1.5-2.3 Mbps upstream

Up to 34 Mbps Symmetric

R-ADSL 1.5-8 Mbps downstream 12-18 K feet

Up to 1.544 Mbps upstream

asymmetric dsl
Asymmetric DSL
  • Characteristics
  • Uses frequency division multiplex occupying spectrum above voice
  • Principal modulation scheme is Discrete multitone (DMT), a
  • quadrature amplitude modulation coding technique developed by
  • Bell Labs (ANSI T1.413 standard)
  • Can be mapped into higher layer protocol mechanisms that can
  • include IP frames or ATM cells
  • Can interface to Simple Network Management Protocol (SNMP)
  • for operations, administration and management

To Network

To User

0-4 KHz 25KHz 200KHz 1.1MHz

dsl roll out
DSL Roll-Out

50

40

30

20

10

0

Millions of Lines

TeleChoice

1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005

simplified xdsl architecture
Simplified xDSL Architecture

Voice Switch

PSTN

ISP

Router

Local Loop

Fast Packet

Splitter

DSLAM

Internet

the transparent network

Application

e-business

Content Provider

Enterprise Host

The transparent network …

End User

Business or

Residential

Ideally, the network is transparent — the end user simply wants to get information to or from a remote location

isn t really so transparent

Consumer

Residential

Business

Application

e-business

Content Provider

Backbone

Backbone

Backbone

Application

e-business

Content Provider

Backbone

…isn’t really so transparent

E-business

LEC

LEC

NSP

NAP

NSP

Transport

Transport

But today’s reality is that the transparent network is a complex value chain of individual networks

the value chain

Application

e-business

Content Provider

The Value Chain

Consumer

Residential

Business

eBay

GTE

SBC

New Edge

PSINet

AOL

Sprint

Williams

UUNet

XYZ

Qwest

Application

e-business

Content Provider

GTEI

The players in this value chain have many names and may be linked in different configurations

the value chain1
The Value Chain

Consumer

Residential

Business

eBay

Application

e-business

Content Provider

GTE

SBC

New Edge

PSINet

AOL

Sprint

Williams

UUNet

XYZ

Qwest

Application

e-business

Content Provider

GTEI

These value chains are held together by very thin threads of linkages between legacy operations support systems (OSSs) and a lot of manual processes

who fixes the network
Who Fixes The Network?

NAP

Backbone

NSP

Application

e-business

Content Provider

Verizon

Advanced

Data

Worldcom

AOL

DWDM

DWDM

Internet

AOL

Verizon

ILEC

Verizon

Advanced

Data

Verizon ILEC

Verizon Advanced Data

Serving CO

Hub office

ADM

ATM

Network

ADM

ADM

DSLAM

ADM

LEC

NAP

NAP

LEC

providers ask two pivotal questions
Providers Ask Two Pivotal Questions

Is the network service up

and running properly?

If it’s not, where’s the problem

and how do we fix it?

the answer
The Answer...

NSP

LEC

NAP

Providers must tightlylink their operations with their trading partners through integratedservice assurance

service assurance market
Service Assurance Market

Operations

Support

Systems

  • $3.5B* in 2000$8.4B* in 2004
  • Growing at 25%
  • Includes OSS software, services, and remote probes
  • Key players: Spirent Communications, Telcordia, Lucent, Acterna (TTC/WWG), Micromuse

Test & Measurement

Service Assurance

* RHK Estimates

service assurance activities

Detect Alarms/Events

Isolate Root Cause

Test

Detect Performance/Traffic Problems

Monitor SLAs

Determine SLA Violations

Decide Repair

Allocate Resources

Report

Service Assurance Activities
network communication is key
Network “Communication” is Key

LEC

NSP

NAP

Need to provide service information within and between networks

outsourcing net mgt
Outsourcing Net Mgt
  • IT Spending averages 3% of revenue & revenue is down
  • No outsourcer will meet all the needs of your business or agency
  • The annual cost of 9 networking and 6 help desk staffers averages $1.08 million (including benefits)
  • Four vendors investigated that cost approximately $350,000 to $500,000
  • Worth while thoughts:
    • Double check special requests (what, who, when, where, how)
    • Lay-offs hurt you and the outsourcer
    • Willingness to accept fines or reimbursement is a big deal
    • Block & Level the SLA vs. the network
outsourcing net mgt1
Outsourcing Net Mgt

PerformanceIT

iNOC

HCL

NetProactive

Net Mgt

Imonitor

Technologies

Services

Service

iNOC

Remote

Services

Infrastructure

Management

IT B

dg

t Reduction

30%

4

5

3

1

Svce-level Mgt 30%

5

4.5

3

3

Other Costs 20%

5

4

4

3

Operations 10%

4

4

5

3

Reporting 10%

5

4

5

4

Total Score 100%

4.60

4.45

3.60

2.50

A

A

-

B

-

C

-

Grade

outsourcing net mgt2
Outsourcing Net Mgt

Company Name Service Name Svc Yrs Sales Per Yr Employees

HCL Technologies iNOC Services 3 $336M 8748

America

iNOC IMonitor 3 $4.8M 30

NetProactive Remote 4 $500K 28

Services Infrastructure

Management

PerformanceIT PerformanceIT 6 $10M 100

Network Mgt

Service