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bernard-oneill
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Stress

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  1. Stress

  2. What Is Stress? • Stressor: Any physical or psychological event or condition that produces stress • Stress Response: The physiological changes associated with stress • Stress: The collective physiological and emotional responses to any stimulus that disturbs an individual’s homeostasis

  3. Physical Response to Stressors = Fight-or-Flight Reaction • Nervous system • Autonomic Nervous System: Controls heart rate, respiration rate, salivation, perspiration, urination, sexual arousal • Sympathetic Division: Becomes more active during stress. Heart rate and blood pressure increase, pupils dilate, sweating and vomitting • Parasympathetic Division: Controls smooth muscle contraction (digestion), regulate cardiac muscle, and stimulate or inhibit hormone secretions • “Restin and Digestin”

  4. Physical Response to Stressors = Fight-or-Flight Reaction • Endocrine System: System of glands, tissues, and cells that secrete hormones into the bloodstream; influences metabolism and body processes • Key chemical messengers during the stress response • Norepinephrine: Increases heart rate, triggers release of glucose and increases attention, awareness and alertness • Epinephrine (adrenaline): Released by adrenal glands to increase heart rate, stroke volume, dilates pupils, elevates blood sugar, and breaks down lipids

  5. Physical Response to Stressors = Fight-or-Flight Reaction • Key chemical messengers during the stress response • Cortisol: Increases blood pressure and blood sugar • Endorphin : Produced by the pituitary and hypothalamus glands during vigorous exercise (“runner’s high”)-running, boxing, rowing, cycling, RT, basketball, martial arts, tennis, football

  6. Physical Response to Stressors: Fight-or-Flight Reaction • Together, the nervous system and the endocrine system prepare the body to respond to a stressor • The physiological response is the same regardless of the nature of the stressor • Once a stressful situation ends, the parasympathetic division returns the body to homeostasis—a state of stability and consistency in an individual’s physiological functioning • The fight-or-flight reaction is often inappropriate for dealing with the stressors of modern life, many of which do not require a physical response

  7. Chapter 10

  8. Chapter 10

  9. Chapter 10

  10. Emotional and Behavioral Responses to Stressors • Emotional responses may include anxiety, depression, and fear • Behavioral responses are controlled by the somatic nervous system = branch of the peripheral nervous systems that governs motor functions and sensory information; largely under conscious control

  11. Personality and Stress • Type A: Ultracompetitive, controlling, impatient, aggressive, hostile • Easily upset; react explosively to stressors • Type B: Relaxed, contemplative, tolerant of others • React more calmly to stressors • Type C: Difficulty expressing emotions, anger suppression, feelings of hopelessness and despair • Exaggerated stress response • Hardy: Committed to activities, sense of inner purpose, inner locus of control • View stressors as challenges and opportunities for growth

  12. Gender and Stress • Gender roles affect perception of and responses to stressors • Both sexes experience the fight-or-flight physiological response to stress • Women are more likely to respond behaviorally with a pattern of “tend-and-befriend” • Gender differences may be partly tied to higher levels of the hormone oxytocin (reproduction and lactation) in women

  13. Past Experiences • Past experiences influence the cognitive evaluation of a potential stressor • Effective behavioral responses can overcome the effects of negative past experiences

  14. The Stress Experience as a Whole • Physical, emotional, and behavioral responses are interrelated • Symptoms of excess stress • Physical symptoms: Dry mouth, excessive perspiration, frequent illnesses, gastrointestinal problems, grinding of teeth, headaches, high blood pressure, pounding heart, stiff neck, aching lower back

  15. The Stress Experience as a Whole • Symptoms of excess stress • Emotional symptoms: Anxiety or edginess, depression, fatigue, hypervigilance, impulsiveness, inability to concentrate, irritability, trouble remembering things • Behavioral symptoms: Crying, disrupted eating or sleeping habits, harsh treatment of others, problems communicating, sexual problems, social isolation, increased used of tobacco, alcohol or other drugs

  16. Stress and Wellness • The General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) • Eustress: Stress triggered by a pleasant stressor • Exercise • Distress: Stress triggered by an unpleasant stressor • Overtraining • Stages of GAS • Alarm: Fight-or-Flight reaction • Resistance: New level of homeostasis characterized by increased resistance to stress • Exhaustion: Life-threatening physiological exhaustion

  17. Chapter 10

  18. Stress and Wellness • Allostatic Load: Long-term wear and tear of the stress response, especially long-term exposure to stress hormones like cortisol • High allostatic load increases susceptibility to disease • Psychoneuroimmunology (PNI): The study of the interactions among the nervous system, the endocrine system, and the immune system

  19. Links Between Stress and Specific Conditions • Cardiovascular disease • Altered functioning of the immune system • Other health problems: • Difficulty sleeping -Skin Problems like hives • Irritable Bowel Syndrome • Weight Gain/Weight Loss • Anxiety • Depression • Headache • Diabetes • Back Pain

  20. Common Sources of Stress • Death of a spouse • Divorce • Marital separation • Spending time in jail • Death of a close family member • Personal illness or injury • Marriage • Pregnancy • Retirement

  21. Common Sources of Stress • Death of a spouse • Divorce • Marital separation • Spending time in jail • Death of a close family member • Personal illness or injury • Legal Issues • Work • Marriage • Pregnancy • Retirement • Financial Issues • School • Time Management • Balancing Work and Family • Illness or injury of family members

  22. Counterproductive Coping Strategies • Overeating • Undereating • Angry outbursts • Drug and/or alcohol abuse • Smoking • Social withdrawal • Crying spells • Relationship conflicts

  23. Managing Stress • Physical Activity (RT, aerobic training, yoga, Tai Chi) • Reduces anxiety and increases sense of well-being • Mobilizes energy resources to complete the energy cycle • Avoid compulsive exercise • Nutrition • Eat a balanced diet • Avoid excess caffeine

  24. Managing Stress • Relaxation Techniques (breathing) • Meditation • Sleep • Lack of sleep is both a cause and an effect of excess stress • Social support • Foster friendships • Keep family ties strong • Get involved with a group • Communication • Balance anger and assertiveness

  25. Managing Anger Chapter 10

  26. Managing Stress • Spiritual wellness can promote • Social support • Healthy habits • Positive attitude • Moments of relaxation • Awareness and clarification of personal values • Paths to spiritual wellness include organized religion, spending time in nature, helping others, art or other creative endeavors, personal relationships

  27. Set priorities Schedule tasks for peak efficiency Set realistic goals Budget enough time Break up long-term goals Visualize achievement of goals Track tasks you put off Do least favorite tasks first Consolidate tasks Identify transitional tasks Delegate responsibility Say no when necessary Give yourself a break Just do it Managing Stress: Time Management

  28. Managing Stress: Cognitive Techniques • Modify expectations • Engage in realistic self-talk • Live in the present • “Go with the flow” • Cultivate your sense of humor

  29. Managing Stress • Relaxation response = a physiological state characterized by a feeling of warmth and quiet mental alertness • Relaxation techniques: • Progressive relaxation: Alternating muscle tension and relaxation • Visualization: Creating or recreating vivid mental pictures of a place or an experience

  30. Managing Stress • Relaxation techniques • Deep, slow breathing: Inhale through your nose and exhale through your mouth • Listening to music • Meditation: Quieting the mind by focusing on a particular word, object, or process • Hatha Yoga: A series of physical postures emphasizing balance and breathing control • Taijiquan: A martial art designed to balance the body’s chi to promote health and spiritual growth

  31. Managing Stress • Relaxation techniques • Biofeedback: A technique that uses monitoring devices to help a person become conscious of unconscious body processes, such as body temperature or blood pressure, in order to exert some control over them • Hypnosis: A technique of mental focusing that affects the body • Massage: Manipulation of the body’s tissues

  32. Getting Help • Peer counseling and support groups • Professional help • Is it stress or something more serious? • Depression: A mood disorder characterized by loss of interest in usual activities, sadness, hopelessness, loss appetite, disturbed sleep, and other physical symptoms • Severe depression is linked to suicide