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X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS). David Echevarría Torres University of Texas at El Paso College of Science Chemistry Department. XPS Background XPS Instrument How Does XPS Technology Work? Auger Electron Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA) Equation KE versus BE Spectrum Background

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x ray photoelectron spectroscopy xps

X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)

David Echevarría Torres

University of Texas at El Paso

College of Science

Chemistry Department

outline
XPS Background

XPS Instrument

How Does XPS Technology Work?

Auger Electron

Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA)

Equation

KE versus BE

Spectrum Background

Identification of XPS Peaks

X-rays vs. e- Beam

XPS Technology

Outline
xps background
XPS Background
  • XPS technique is based on Einstein’s idea about the photoelectric effect, developed around 1905
    • The concept of photons was used to describe the ejection of electrons from a surface when photons were impinged upon it
  • During the mid 1960’s Dr. Siegbahn and his research group developed the XPS technique.
    • In 1981, Dr. Siegbahn was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for the development of the XPS technique
x rays
X-Rays
  • Irradiate the sample surface, hitting the core electrons (e-) of the atoms.
  • The X-Rays penetrate the sample to a depth on the order of a micrometer.
  • Useful e- signal is obtained only from a depth of around 10 to 100 Å on the surface.
  • The X-Ray source produces photons with certain energies:
    • MgK photon with an energy of 1253.6 eV
    • AlK photon with an energy of 1486.6 eV
  • Normally, the sample will be radiated with photons of a single energy (MgK or AlK). This is known as a monoenergetic X-Ray beam.
why the core electrons

Valence e-

Core e-

Atom

Why the Core Electrons?
  • An electron near the Fermi level is far from the nucleus, moving in different directions all over the place, and will not carry information about any single atom.
    • Fermi level is the highest energy level occupied by an electron in a neutral solid at absolute 0 temperature.
    • Electron binding energy (BE) is calculated with respect to the Fermi level.
  • The core e-s are local close to the nucleus and have binding energies characteristic of their particular element.
  • The core e-s have a higher probability of matching the energies of AlK and MgK.
binding energy be

0

B.E.

x

p+

Binding Energy (BE)

The Binding Energy (BE) is characteristic of the core electrons for each element. The BE is determined by the attraction of the electrons to the nucleus. If an electron with energy x is pulled away from the nucleus, the attraction between the electron and the nucleus decreases and the BE decreases. Eventually, there will be a point when the electron will be free of the nucleus.

This is the point with 0 energy of attraction between the electron and the nucleus. At this point the electron is free from the atom.

These electrons are attracted to the proton with certain binding energy x

energy levels

Vacumm Level

Ø, which is the work function

Fermi Level

At absolute 0 Kelvin the electrons fill from the lowest energy states up. When the electrons occupy up to this level the neutral solid is in its “ground state.”

BE

Lowest state of energy

Energy Levels
xps instrument
XPS Instrument
  • XPS is also known as ESCA (Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis).
  • The technique is widely used because it is very simple to use and the data is easily analyzed.
  • XPS works by irradiating atoms of a surface of any solid material with X-Ray photons, causing the ejection of electrons.

University of Texas at El Paso, Physics Department

Front view of the Phi 560 XPS/AES/SIMS UHV System

xps instrument9
XPS Instrument

The XPS is controlled by using a computer system.

The computer system will control the X-Ray type and prepare the instrument for analysis.

University of Texas at El Paso, Physics Department

Front view of the Phi 560 XPS/AES/SIMS UHV System and the computer system that controls the XPS.

xps instrument10
XPS Instrument
  • The instrument uses different pump systems to reach the goal of an Ultra High Vacuum (UHV) environment.
  • The Ultra High Vacuum environment will prevent contamination of the surface and aid an accurate analysis of the sample.

University of Texas at El Paso, Physics Department

Side view of the Phi 560 XPS/AES/SIMS UHV System

xps instrument11
XPS Instrument

X-Ray Source

Ion Source

SIMS Analyzer

Sample introduction

Chamber

sample introduction chamber
Sample Introduction Chamber
  • The sample will be introduced through a chamber that is in contact with the outside environment
  • It will be closed and pumped to low vacuum.
  • After the first chamber is at low vacuum the sample will be introduced into the second chamber in which a UHV environment exists.

First Chamber

Second Chamber UHV

diagram of the side view of xps system

X-Ray source

Ion source

Detector

SIMS Analyzer

Axial Electron Gun

Sample introduction Chamber

Sample Holder

sample

CMA

Slits

Roughing Pump

Ion Pump

Diagram of the Side View of XPS System
how does xps technology work
A monoenergetic x-ray beam emits photoelectrons from the from the surface of the sample.

The X-Rays either of two energies:

Al Ka (1486.6eV)

Mg Ka (1253.6 eV)

The x-ray photons The penetration about a micrometer of the sample

The XPS spectrum contains information only about the top 10 - 100 Ǻ of the sample.

Ultrahigh vacuum environment to eliminate excessive surface contamination.

Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA) measures the KE of emitted e-s.

The spectrum plotted by the computer from the analyzer signal.

The binding energies can be determined from the peak positions and the elements present in the sample identified.

How Does XPS Technology Work?
why does xps need uhv
Why Does XPS Need UHV?
  • Contamination of surface
    • XPS is a surface sensitive technique.
      • Contaminates will produce an XPS signal and lead to incorrect analysis of the surface of composition.
  • The pressure of the vacuum system is < 10-9 Torr
  • Removing contamination
    • To remove the contamination the sample surface is bombarded with argon ions (Ar+ = 3KeV).
    • heat and oxygen can be used to remove hydrocarbons
  • The XPS technique could cause damage to the surface, but it is negligible.
slide16

proton

neutron

electron

electron vacancy

The Atom and the X-Ray

X-Ray

Free electron

Valence electrons

Core electrons

The core electrons respond very well to the X-Ray energy

x rays on the surface

e- lower layer

but no collisions

e- top layer

Outer surface

e- lower layer

with collisions

X-Rays

Inner surface

Atoms layers

X-Rays on the Surface
x rays on the surface18
X-Rays on the Surface
  • The X-Rays will penetrate to the core e- of the atoms in the sample.
  • Some e-s are going to be released without any problem giving the Kinetic Energies (KE) characteristic of their elements.
  • Other e-s will come from inner layers and collide with other e-s of upper layers
    • These e- will be lower in lower energy.
    • They will contribute to the noise signal of the spectrum.
x rays and the electrons
X-Rays and the Electrons

X-Ray

Electron without collision

Electron with collision

The noise signal comes from the electrons that collide with other electrons of different layers. The collisions cause a decrease in energy of the electron and it no longer will contribute to the characteristic energy of the element.

what e s can the cylindrical mirror analyzer detect
What e-s can the Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer Detect?
  • The CMA not only can detect electrons from the irradiation of X-Rays, it can also detect electrons from irradiation by the e- gun.
  • The e- gun it is located inside the CMA while the X-Ray source is located on top of the instrument.
  • The only electrons normally used in a spectrum from irradiation by the e- gun are known as Auger e-s. Auger electrons are also produced by X-ray irradiation.
x rays and auger electrons
X-Rays and Auger Electrons
  • When the core electron leaves a vacancy an electron of higher energy will move down to occupy the vacancy while releasing energy by:
    • photons
    • Auger electrons
  • Each Auger electron carries a characteristic energy that can be measured.
two ways to produce auger electrons
Two Ways to Produce Auger Electrons
  • The X-Ray source can irradiate and remove the e- from the core level causing the e- to leave the atom
  • A higher level e- will occupy the vacancy.
  • The energy released is given to a third higher level e-.
  • This is the Auger electron that leaves the atom.

The axial e- gun can irradiate and remove the core e- by collision. Once the core vacancy is created, the Auger electron process occurs the same way.

auger electron
Auger Electron

2

e- of high energy that will occupy the vacancy of the core level

Free e-

3

e- released to analyze

4

1

e- gun

e- Vacancy

1, 2, 3 and 4 are the order of steps in which the e-s will move in the atom when hit by the e- gun.

auger electron spectroscopy aes
Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)

e- released from

the top layer

Outer surface

Inner surface

Electron beam

from the e- gun

Atom layers

cylindrical mirror analyzer cma
Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA)
  • The electrons ejected will pass through a device called a CMA.
  • The CMA has two concentric metal cylinders at different voltages.
  • One of the metal cylinders will have a positive voltage and the other will have a 0 voltage. This will create an electric field between the two cylinders.
  • The voltages on the CMA for XPS and Auger e-s are different.
cylindrical mirror analyzer cma26
Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA)
  • When the e-s pass through the metal cylinders, they will collide with one of the cylinders or they will just pass through.
    • If the e-’s velocity is too high it will collide with the outer cylinder
    • If is going too slow then will collide with the inner cylinder.
    • Only the e- with the right velocity will go through the cylinders to reach the detector.
  • With a change in cylinder voltage the acceptable kinetic energy will change and then you can count how many e-s have that KE to reach the detector.
cylindrical mirror analyzer cma27

X-Rays

Source

0 V

0 V

+V

+V

+V

+V

Sample

Holder

0 V

0 V

Cylindrical Mirror Analyzer (CMA)

Electron Pathway through the CMA

Slit

Detector

equation
Equation

KE=hv-BE-Ø

KE Kinetic Energy (measure in the XPS spectrometer)

hv photon energy from the X-Ray source (controlled)

Ø spectrometerwork function. It is a few eV, it gets more complicated because the materials in the instrument will affect it. Found by calibration.

BE is the unknown variable

equation29
Equation
  • The equation will calculate the energy needed to get an e- out from the surface of the solid.
  • Knowing KE, hv and Ø the BE can be calculated.

KE=hv-BE-Ø

ke versus be

# of electrons

E

E

E

Binding energy

(eV)

KE versus BE

KE can be plotted depending on BE

Each peak represents the amount of e-s at a certain energy that is characteristic of some element.

BE increase from right to left

1000 eV

0 eV

KE increase from left to right

interpreting xps spectrum background
The X-Ray will hit the e-s in the bulk (inner e- layers) of the sample

e- will collide with other e- from top layers, decreasing its energy to contribute to the noise, at lower kinetic energy than the peak .

The background noise increases with BE because the SUM of all noise is taken from the beginning of the analysis.

N = noise

N4

# of electrons

N3

N2

N1

Binding energy

Ntot=N1 + N2 + N3+ N4

Interpreting XPS Spectrum: Background
xps spectrum
XPS Spectrum
  • The XPS peaks are sharp.
  • In a XPS graph it is possible to see Auger electron peaks.
  • The Auger peaks are usually wider peaks in a XPS spectrum.
  • Aluminum foil is used as an example on the next slide.
slide33

XPS Spectrum

O 1s

O Auger

O because

of Mg source

C

O 2s

Al

Al

Sample and graphic provided by William Durrer, Ph.D.

Department of Physics at the Univertsity of Texas at El Paso

slide34

Auger Spectrum

Characteristic of Auger graphs

The graph goes up as KE increases.

Sample and graphic provided by William Durrer, Ph.D.

Department of Physics at the Univertsity of Texas at El Paso

identification of xps peaks
Identification of XPS Peaks
  • The plot has characteristic peaks for each element found in the surface of the sample.
  • There are tables with the KE and BE already assigned to each element.
  • After the spectrum is plotted you can look for the designated value of the peak energy from the graph and find the element present on the surface.
x rays vs e beam
X-rays vs. e- Beam
  • X-Rays
    • Hit all sample area simultaneously permitting data acquisition that will give an idea of the average composition of the whole surface.
  • Electron Beam
    • It can be focused on a particular area of the sample to determine the composition of selected areas of the sample surface.
xps technology
Consider as non-destructive

because it produces soft x-rays to induce photoelectron emission from the sample surface

Provide information about surface layers or thin film structures

Applications in the industry:

Polymer surface

Catalyst

Corrosion

Adhesion

Semiconductors

Dielectric materials

Electronics packaging

Magnetic media

Thin film coatings

XPS Technology
references
References
  • Dr.William Durrer for explanations on XPS technique, Department of Physics at UTEP.
  • www.uksaf.com
  • www.casaxps.com
  • www.nwsl.net
  • XPS instrument from the Physics Department.
acknowledgements
Acknowledgements
  • Elizabeth Gardner, Ph.D.

from the Department of Chemistry at the University of Texas at El Paso

  • William Durrer, Ph.D.

from the Department of Physics at the University of Texas at El Paso

  • Roberto De La Torre Roche
  • Lynn Marie Santiago