On WISCONSIN! - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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  1. On WISCONSIN! Statehood

  2. 1848 • Milwaukee: 14k People (40% German) • Main business: Flour milling • Main export: Wheat • Transportation for trade • 1854 Milwaukee RR reached Madison • 1857 RR reached Prairie du Chien

  3. Urban growth • #2 Racine: Wheat Port • #3 Kenosha: another port city • West of Kenosha/Racine: Kettle Moraine • Hills, rugged, rough road for travel, not tilled • Watertown: on Rock River; mid-way between Madison and Milwaukee • Access to Mississippi • Market town • High hopes – lots of land speculation • Land easier to till closer to Madison

  4. More growth • Chippewa and St. Croix Villages • Timber speculation • Prairie du Chien • Continued as trading center

  5. PopulationToday:5,758,000

  6. Where did all of these people come from? • New England “Yankees”: settled in SE and along IL border • Janesville and along Rock River • Big immigration flow from Europe to U.S. (Push and Pull factors from Europe) • Why? Economic changes: • Agricultural improvements – less need for workers • Growing population – overcrowding • Potato Famine – Scandinavia to Ireland • Political Unrest - Germany

  7. How did they reach WI? • Irish and Germans – landed in New York • West via Erie Canal and Great Lakes • Scandinavians – via Quebec

  8. No room service… • From Liverpool each passenger receives weekly 5 lbs. of oatmeal, 2 1/2 lbs. biscuit, 1 lb. flour, 2 lbs. rice, 1/2 lb. sugar, 1/2 lb. molasses, and 2 ounces of tea. He is obliged to cook it the best way he can in a cook shop 12 feet by 6! This is the cause of so many quarrels and...many a poor woman with her children can get but one meal done, and sometimes they get nothing warm for days and nights when a gale of wind is blowing and the sea is mountains high and breaking over the ship in all directions.—Anonymous, New-York Daily Times, October 15, 1851

  9. Deluxe Suite: $325 (1855) • 1st Class: $130 (1855) • 2nd Class ($75) • 2015 (based on CPI conversion from 1855) estimates: • $6700 • $2700 • $1550

  10. The Great Equalizer? • Why move to the “New Frontier”? • Land • Only ½ of Wisconsin’s male population owned land • Wealth was concentrated • Milwaukee: 11 richest men • 46 people worth min $100,000 (multimillionaire today) • Top 10% had 80% of wealth • On the frontier – ratios were closer together • Connection between wealth and origin (brought $ with them) • American-born had more land than immigrants

  11. The “rest” of the population: Women, Blacks, Indians • Women had more respect on frontier – less of them • 1840: 8 men to 5 women • 1850: 6 to 5 • Marriage = money • More opportunities for better pay • i.e. teachers in demand made more • Sold as “healthier” away from cities, mining and growing industry

  12. Catherine Beecher • Sister of Harriot Beecher Stowe • “crusader” for women in schools • 1852: Milwaukee Female College: vocational training and academic advancement • Teacher training • Other reasons why women were in the classroom – • Cheaper than men • Flexible schedules

  13. Not all roses… • Obstacles women faced on the New Frontier: • Married women – part of their husband’s estate • No access to courts (w/o husband) • No vote • Trade Unions: • Goal to keep women out of certain jobs

  14. Women: Glass is ½ full? • 1850s Reform Movement • Passed law – ok to own property (independent of husband) • Contributed to Reform Movement • 1st state to abolish capital punishment • Tried to pass prohibition (governor vetoed)

  15. Wisconsin Indians • Census of 1860: • 1017 “civilized Indians” • 404 of them “half breeds” • Counted were those paying property taxes • Limited count of Indians on tribal lands/reservations: est. 8k

  16. Slavery in wisconsin • 1st Blacks in Wisconsin were slaves • Brought to work in mines • Prohibited by Northwest Ordinance, but no enforcement • 1840 Census 185 free, 11 slaves • 1850 no slaves, 653 free • 1860 1171 • Couldn’t serve in military • More rights than other Northern States • No inter-racial marriage laws • Could own property • Send kids to public schools • No job limitations • Be on juries, testify against whites, hold public meetings

  17. African American Population in WI • Milwaukee and Racine • Barbers/hairdressers • Sailors • Common laborers

  18. Abolitionists • Not many white people in north cared about abolition • Didn’t agree with taking “property” – fear that they could lose their own “property” • Congress had no power to alter state constitutions • But – people were becoming more aware • Morally wrong

  19. Secession • Growing issue • Mexican – American War (1846) • ? Of what to do with new lands • Extend to TX and CA? • Free Soiler Party (later the Liberty Party): • Compromise • Ignore where already is, but don’t let spread

  20. The Great Compromise • Tried to make everyone happy • Fugitive Slave Law: • Southern slavecatchers could take back • Based on an oath • No judicial process • Judge: higher fee if sent back than set free • Organized • Assisted Underground Railroad to Canada

  21. Underground railroad in Wisconsin

  22. Joshua Glover • Runaway slave in Racine • Federal marshal broke in • Beat Glover • Carted him away • Sherman Booth: Milwaukee newspaper writer and abolitionist • Protested • Lead a mob which called for Glover’s release, broke in and set free • Marshal was arrested • Booth was arrested

  23. QUICK WRITE: WHAT DO YOU SEE? • WHAT DO YOU THINK THE MESSAGE WAS?