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URBANIZATION or HOW CITIES GROW. Geography 1050 The geography of cities. Outline. Global patterns of urbanization Differences in urbanization between MDCs and LDCs Urbanization and the population question Urban service provision and urban economies in LDC cities. URBANIZATION & CITIES.

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urbanization or how cities grow

URBANIZATIONorHOW CITIES GROW

Geography 1050

The geography of cities

outline
Outline
  • Global patterns of urbanization
  • Differences in urbanization between MDCs and LDCs
  • Urbanization and the population question
  • Urban service provision and urban economies in LDC cities
urbanization cities
URBANIZATION & CITIES
  • Urbanization refers to the proportion of people in living in cities.
  • It also refers to the process in which rural populations move to urban areas.
  • Urbanization refers to all of the cities in a country, considered as an urban system.
  • The urban system is the network of individual cities within a region or country.
slide5

The United States,

The World

And Europe

At Night

slide6

Urban and Rural Population,

Less Developed Countries

1950 to 2025

urbanization
Urbanization
  • The urbanization curve is typically logistic or S-shaped
slide8

<1.5X

~3X

% of population living

in urban areas in

major world regions,

1950, 1975, 2000 and 2025

2X

~4X

~3X

sources of urbanization
Sources of Urbanization
  • The urban system of a country grows mainly by:
    • Natural population increase (births – deaths)
    • Migration from rural areas (especially in countries with large rural populations)
    • Immigration from other countries (especially in Europe and North America)
    • Reclassification of urban boundaries to encompass formerly rural areas
outline10
Outline
  • Global patterns of urbanization
  • Differences in urbanization between MDCs and LDCs
  • Urbanization and the population question
  • Urban service provision and urban economies in LDC cities
urbanization in mdcs and ldcs
MDCs

Slow pre-industrial growth

Rapid industrial growth

Slows again once most previously rural populations are in cities

Europe, North America, Australia and Japan, the population is 75% to 80% urban.

Canada is 80% urbanized.

LDCs

Rapid urbanization without proportional industrialization (population growth, land tenure)

By 2020 majority of LDC population will live in urban areas of 1 million+

By 2020 most megacities of 10 million+ will be in LDCs

Urbanization in MDCs and LDCs
urbanization12
Urbanization

MDC urbanization

LDC urbanization

  • The urbanization curve is typically logistic or S-shaped
urban growth is speeding up
Urban Growth is Speeding Up

Time required to reach 2 million population:

Rome, Italy 2000 years

Vienna, Austria 400 years

Vancouver, B.C. 115 years

Shenzhen, China 20 years

share of world population growth urban and rural areas ldcs and mdcs 1950 to 2025
Share of World Population Growth Urban and Rural Areas LDCs and MDCs 1950 to 2025
  • Over the next quarter century, increases in urbanization will be almost entirely attributable to sub-Saharan Africa and Asia
outline16
Outline
  • Global patterns of urbanization
  • Differences in urbanization between MDCs and LDCs
  • Urbanization and the population question
  • Urban service provision and urban economies in LDC cities
share of world population growth urban and rural areas ldcs and mdcs 1950 to 202517
Share of World Population Growth Urban and Rural Areas LDCs and MDCs 1950 to 2025
  • Over the next quarter century, increases in urbanization will be almost entirely attributable to sub-Saharan Africa and Asia
urbanization the population question thomas malthus and malthusianism
Urbanization & the population questionThomas Malthus and Malthusianism

“I SAID that population, when unchecked, increased in a geometrical ratio, and subsistence for man in an arithmetical ratio.”

Thomas Malthus. 1798. An Essay on the Principle of Population

Available at http://cepa.newschool.edu/het/

1766-1834

urbanization the population question thomas malthus and malthusianism20
Urbanization & the population questionThomas Malthus and Malthusianism
  • Solution to unchecked population growth: inculcate ‘middle-class’ values in the ‘lower-classes’
    • Advocated universal sufferage, state-run education
  • But his analysis of population growth has been used to naturalize the idea of ‘overpopulation’ as a purely mathematical problem ---> buries struggles for power (politics) in apparently objective language of math.

1766-1834

urbanization the population question25
Urbanization & the population question

www.pivotlegal.org/pivot/points/DownEast.htm

urbanization the population question26
Urbanization & the population question

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