22.1 Urbanization • Cities have specialized functions as well as large populations • Trade Centers (New York) • Resource Extraction (Pittsburgh, Houston) • Manufacturing (Detroit) • All Require Vast Array of Service Industries • Large cities are expanding rapidly
22.2 Why Do Cities Grow? • Immigration is driven by push and pull factors • Push • Lack of Land • Violence • Social Pressures • Pull • Jobs • Lifestyle • Government policies can drive urban growth
Cities are Tough • Small towns frequently die because of economic problems, resource exhaustion, disasters or war, but large cities are rarely abandoned • Vijayanagara, India (Destroyed 1565) is one of the most recent large cities (500,000) to be completely abandoned • Pripyat, Ukraine (50,000) was abandoned after Chernobyl (1986) • No large cities were abandoned because of World War II
Cities Re-Invent Themselves • Pittsburgh: Steel Technology • Milwaukee: Brewing Service • Dubai: Oil Finance • Detroit? • New Orleans?
22.3 Urban Challenges In The Developing World • Trafﬁc congestion and air quality are growing problems • Insufﬁcient sewage treatment causes water pollution • Insufficient Public Utilities • Many cities lack adequate housing
22.4 Urban Challenges In The Developed World • Urban sprawl consumes land and resources • Expanding suburbs force long commutes • Why not find out why people leave cities and fix those problems? • Crowding • Behavior • Mass-transit could make our cities more livable
22.5 Smart Growth • Garden cities and new towns were early examples of smart growth • New urbanism advanced the ideas of smart growth • Victor Gruen and the Shopping Mall • Green urbanism promotes sustainable cities • Open space design preserves landscapes • Who pays for Open Space?