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  1. TSUNAMI DESCRIPTION Sponsoring Teacher: Ismi Kamarul Sham b. Ismail Sponsor School: Batu 4 Secondary School City: Gerik, Perak Country: Malaysia MENU 1 MENU 2

  2. Menu 1 ObjectiveIntroductionConclusion Web ReferencesProject’s Member Tsunami Description can give a right definition of tsunami, to know the cause of tsunami and where do tsunami occur on our planet. Objective

  3. Menu 1 ObjectiveIntroductionConclusion Web ReferencesProject’s Member Tsunami Description : • Definition of Tsunami • What causes of Tsunami? • Where do tsunamis occurs in the world Introduction

  4. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? Tsunami is a Japanese word meaning ‘harbor wave’. It is constituted with two syllables, Japanese language meaning harbour ("tsu", 津) and wave ("nami", 波). Tsunami is a wave train or series of waves generated, by impulsive disturbance that vertically displaces the water column, in water body. Earthquake, landslides, volcanic eruption, explosion and even the impact of cosmic bodies like meteorites commonly generate tsunami. Tsunami savagely attacks coastlines causing devastating property damage and loss of lives. WHAT?

  5. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? Tsunami "Wave Train" Many people have the mistaken belief that tsunamis are single waves. They are not. Instead tsunamis are "wave trains" consisting of multiple waves. The chart below is a tidal gauge record from Onagawa, Japan beginning at the time of the 1960 Chile earthquake. Time is plotted along the horizontal axis and water level is plotted on the vertical axis. Note the normal rise and fall of the ocean surface, caused by tides, during the early part of this record. Then recorded are a few waves a little larger than normal followed by several much larger waves. In many tsunami events the shoreline is pounded by repeated large waves. WHAT?

  6. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? • Tsunami can be generated when the see floor abruptly deforms and vertically displaces the overlying water. • Tectonic earthquakes are a particular kind of earthquake that are associated with the earth’s crustal deformation, when these earthquakes occur beneath the see, the water above the deformed area is displayed from its equilibrium position. • Waves are formed as the displaced water mass, which acts under the influence of gravity, attempts to regain its equilibrium WHAT CAUSE?

  7. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? • Ocean waves are normally divided into 3 groups, characterized by depth: • • Deep water • • Intermediate water • • Shallow water • Even though a tsunami is generated in deep water (around 4000 m below mean sea level), tsunami waves are considered shallow-water waves. As the tsunami wave approaches the shallow waters of shore, its time period remains the same, but its wavelength decreases rapidly, thus causing the water to pile up to form tremendous crests, in an effect known as "shoaling". WHAT CAUSE?

  8. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? Subduction Zones are Potential Tsunami Locations WHAT CAUSE? Most tsunamis are caused by earthquakes generated in a subduction zone, an area where an oceanic plate is being forced down into the mantle by plate tectonic forces. The friction between the subducting plate and the overriding plate is enormous. This friction prevents a slow and steady rate of subduction and instead the two plates become "stuck".

  9. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? Accumulated Seismic Energy WHAT CAUSE? As the stuck plate continues to descend into the mantle the motion causes a slow distortion of the overriding plage. The result is an accumulation of energy very similar to the energy stored in a compressed spring. Energy can accumulate in the overriding plate over a long period of time - decades or even centuries.

  10. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? Earthquake Causes Tsunami WHAT CAUSE? Energy accumulates in the overriding plate until it exceeds the frictional forces between the two stuck plates. When this happens, the overriding plate snaps back into an unrestrained position. This sudden motion is the cause of the tsunami - because it gives an enormous shove to the overlying water. At the same time, inland areas of the overriding plate are suddenly lowered.

  11. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? Tsunamis occur most frequently in the Pacific Ocean, but are a global phenomenon; they are possible wherever large bodies of water are found, including inland lakes, where they can be caused by landslides. Japan is a nation with the most recorded tsunamis in the world. The earliest recorded disaster being that of the 684 A.D. Please refer to the below website of the List of historic tsunamis by death toll http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_natural_disasters_by_death_toll WHERE?

  12. Menu 2 What is a tsunami ? What causes a tsunami ? Where do tsunamis occur ? WHERE? Map of tectonic plates where the earthquake triggered the tsunami

  13. Menu 1 ObjectiveIntroductionConclusion Web ReferencesProject’s Member Tsunami is one of the earth’s disaster. It was a Japanese word meaning “harbor wave,” used as the scientific term for a class of abnormal sea wave that can cause catastrophic damage when it hits a coastline. Tsunamis can be generated by an undersea earthquake, an undersea landslide, the eruption of an undersea volcano, or by the force of an asteroid crashing into the ocean. Conclusion

  14. Menu 1 ObjectiveIntroductionConclusion Web ReferencesProject’s Member • http://www.rumela.com/diary/diary_tsunami.htm • http://encarta.msn.com/encyclopedia_761559898/Tsunami.html • http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tsunami • http://geo-world.org/tsunami/ • http://geology.com/articles/tsunami-geology.shtml Website References

  15. Menu 1 ObjectiveIntroductionConclusion Web ReferencesProject’s Member ISMI KAMARUL SHAM B. ISMAIL ismi281173@yahoo.com.my Project Members SITI HAWA BT. MOHD RAZALI sitihawa04@yahoo.com.my NURUL ASHIKIN BT. HAMZAH nurulashikin04@yahoo.com.my NOR ATIQAH BT. MOHD RAHIMI noratiqah04@yahoo.com.my