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Egyptian Politics : Religion , Secularity and Kifaya PowerPoint Presentation
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Egyptian Politics : Religion , Secularity and Kifaya

Egyptian Politics : Religion , Secularity and Kifaya

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Egyptian Politics : Religion , Secularity and Kifaya

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  1. EgyptianPolitics: Religion, SecularityandKifaya DrVivienne Matthies-Boon

  2. The Egyptian Arab Spring (2011) • 19 Dec 2010 –Mohamed Bouazizi • 17 Jan 2011 – Man put on fire • 25 Jan 2011 – Protests start • 26 Jan 2011 – Crackdown starts • 29 Jan 2011 – Suleiman appointed • 31 Jan 2011 – Army refuses to shoot protestors • 3 Feb 2011 – Suleiman: bad for business • 4 Feb 2011 – Day of Rage • 11 Feb 2011 – Mubarak resigns • 4 March 2011 EssamSharaf appointed

  3. Western Media focus on Muslim Brotherhood • Fear rise of Muslim Brotherhood • Post-9/11 context • Islam homogenous category • Religion determining factor • Oppositional terms: • Secular vs Religious • Modern vs Traditional • Progressive vs Backwards • Liberal vs Fundamentalist • Democratic vs Authoritarian • Egypt: • Secular Mubarak vs Islamist Muslim Brotherhood

  4. Aim of this talk: • Show that the story is more complex: • Muslim Brotherhood is not Al Qaeda but has gone through a process of structural and ideological (democratic) transformation • The state of Mubarak was not as secular presumed • Democratisation movement has longer roots than presumed

  5. Muslim Brotherhood • 1935 – Hassan Al-Banna • SayyidQutb • Jahilliya • Establish Islamic State • Structure • Shura Council • Guidance Bureau • General Guide

  6. Muslim Brotherhood General Guides • (1928–1949) Hassan al Banna • (1949–1972) Hassan al-Hudaybi • (1972–1986) Umar al-Tilmisani • (1986–1996) Muhammad Hamid Abu al-Nasr • (1996–2002) Mustafa Mashhur • (2002–2004) Ma'mun al-Hudaybi • (2004–2010) Mohammed Mahdi Akef • (2010 – present) Mohammed Badie

  7. Muslim Brotherhood • Democracy: • Broad and equal citizenship • Binding consultation with citizens • Protection of state from arbitrary state action • Old vs new generation? • Relation to presidents?

  8. Election Strategy Muslim Brotherhood • 1984 – Wafd Cooperation • Electoral law 114/1983 • 1986 Parliament dissolved • 1987 – Labour Party Cooperation • Criticised by Jama’a al-Islamiyya • 1987 elections – repression • Focus on bread and butter politics • 1990 – Boycott Elections (collaboration Wafd) • Active professional unions • Sham democrats?

  9. Election Strategy Muslim Brotherhood • 1994:conference on Freedoms and Civil Society • Women rights • Pluralism/party politics • Equal status Copts • Human Rights • 1995: MB activists rounded up and jailed • 1995: elections most violent • 1995: Ma’munHudaybi refuses to sign national accord & Cemetry Pledge of Allegiance • 1996: attempted formation of Wasat party

  10. Election Strategy Muslim Brotherhood • 2000: cadres emerge from prison • Accept Copt as president • Egypt already is an Islamic State • Constitution and ballotbox • Hijabs personal choice • Mashour death 2002 • Hudaybi death 2004

  11. Mubarak’s Seculareligious State • Egypt socially and culturally transformed • Piety • Veiling • Amr Khalid • Religious popular culture • State seculareligious • 1980 introduced Sharia • 1992 Muhammad al Mahjub: Sharia is primary • Guardians of Islamic morals • Shia, homosexuality, hisbas • Construction mosques and selection preachers

  12. Mubarak’s Seculareligious State • 2004 Embryonic movement • New independent dailies: Al-Misr Al Yown, NahditMisr, al-Dustur • Call for democratisation • Kifayameans ‘Enough!’ • Popular force • Campaign on the streets • Domestic concerns • Broad array of intellectuals and activists • New institutions: The Popular Campaign for Change, the National Coalition for Democratic Transformation, The National Coalition for Democratic Transformation, The National Alliance for Reform and Change, Youths for Change, College Faculty for Change, the Street is Ours, and others • Egyptian Popular Committee for Solidarity with the Palestinian Intifada (EPCSPI) (2000)

  13. I hope to have showed that: • the story is more complex: • Muslim Brotherhood is not Al Qaeda but has gone through a process of structural and ideological (democratic) transformation • The state of Mubarak was not as secular presumed • Democratisation movement has longer roots than presumed