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Human Elective

Human Elective

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Human Elective

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  1. Human Elective Overpopulation V.Redmond 2011

  2. Overpopulation • Overpopulation occurs when there are more people living in an area than there are resources to support them. • Resources could include clean water, food, shelter, land, education, medicine, etc.

  3. Sudan • North east Africa • Largest African country • Barren, only 5% of land is fertile. Desert climate in north and Tropical in south. • Capital is Khartoum • Political divisions between Islamic north and Black south.

  4. Map of Sudan

  5. Population in Sudan • 32 million • 50% under 18 years • Life expectancy 55 years • Uneven distribution • 33% population living on 7% of land • 66% of population live within 300 km of Khartoum

  6. Causes of Overpopulation • High Birth Rates • Migration and Conflict • Environmental Degradation • …….Overpopulation is confined to certain parts of Sudan (near Khartoum and the Darfur region)

  7. Birth Rates • Stage 2 in population cycle • High level of natural increase • Large families, 5 children average • High infant mortality • Lack education/ Family planning • 50% of population under 18 • High Dependency Ratio

  8. Conflict • 2003 • Sudanese Liberation Army & Justice and Equality Movement • Rebelled against government • Blamed govt for not protecting farming communities and not developing the Darfur region of Sudan • Govt responded with violence

  9. Conflict and Migration • Govt bombed villages • Supported Janjawid (mounted Arab militia) • Continuous fighting in rural areas • Villages looted, burned, abandoned • Over a million displaced people (refugees) within Darfur and thousands fled to Chad • Thousands killed

  10. Effect of Conflict on Population • Overpopulation in certain areas • Lack of services and employment in these areas • Refugees require huge amount of food and medical aid • Brain drain as professionals emigrate

  11. Influx from Ethiopia • Famine and Conflict • One million refugees flee to Darfur • Lack skills/education • Unemployment • Burden of aid provision

  12. Migration • Internal • External to Chad • Immigration from Ethiopia • Brain drain

  13. Environmental Degradation • Drought reduces food production capacity • Regular drought • Deforestation for fuel • Deforestation causing Desertification • Sahara spreading south 10 km a year

  14. Exam Questions • Explain the term overpopulation and examine two causes of overpopulation in a region you have studied. (30 marks) • Discuss two effects of overpopulation in a region or country that you have studied. (30 marks) • Examine one cause and one effect of overpopulation, with reference to examples you have studied. (30 marks)