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Nuclear Weapons in the World: Who has them & how many are there? Who has given them up? What’s an official “nuclear weapon state”? Cristina Hansell James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies Monterey Institute of International Studies December 4, 2008 Overview
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James Martin Center for Nonproliferation Studies
Monterey Institute of International Studies
December 4, 2008
Sen. Lugar and Typhoon (Russia)
Smallest U.S. Nuclear Weapon built (23.2 kg)
Photo sources: Sen. Lugar’s website; PowerPoint presentation by Jing-dong Yuan, Feb. 7, 2008
1986: about 70,500
Photo source: Department of Energy website
Photo of Titan missile (all Titans have been decommissioned)
Includes stockpiled as well as operational weapons.
Programs ending before NPT began:Australia, Egypt, Sweden, Canada
Factions Within Advocated for or Sought Nuclear Weapons, but these Ambitions Ended by the Time NPT Started:Italy, Japan, Germany, Norway
Programs that Ended After 1970:Brazil, South Korea, Switzerland, Taiwan, Yugoslavia, Romania, and South Africa (which had weapons, and gave them up in the early 1990s)
Programs that began after 1970, but have been given up:Iraq and Libya
Suspected of nuclear intentions (but no program proven):Iran, Syria, Algeria
Inherited Nuclear Weapons, but Now Non-Nuclear Weapon States Party to the NPT:Belarus, Kazakhstan and Ukraine
Programs that ended after 1970
Ongoing, successful programs that started after 1970
Note: A peaceful nuclear program can be the source of fissile material for a nuclear weapon (bomb fuel): highly enriched uranium or plutonium
Milling (getting the uranium out of the mined material, results in “yellowcake”)
Conversion (turning solid yellowcake into a gas)
Enrichment (separating U235 from U238)
Fuel fabrication for heavy water reactors
(like early CANDU reactors) that do not use enriched uranium fuel
Conversion (turning gas back into solid)
Fuel fabrication (making reactor fuel rods)
Use in Nuclear Reactor
— peaceful nuclear programs can be misused to help get #1 and #3