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Models of creativity in language and music

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  1. Models of creativity in language and music Anna Jordanous Music Informatics Research Centre, University of Sussex

  2. Introducing my research… I write computer programs that model musical creativity AIM: Capture the key aspects of how the human mind works when we create music Existing theories about creativity and the mind (fortunately!)… Margaret Boden Arthur Koestler Mihalyi Csikzentmihalyi …and plenty of computer systems that generate music… In Google Scholar, the phrase “Music generation” returns 960 results …but virtually nothing on linking theory to practice (which is where my work comes in) N.B. Not databases! Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  3. Today’s talk People show creativity when using language. People show creativity when using music. There is a strong overlap between music and language What can creativity in language tell us about musical creativity? Music Language Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  4. Human creativity in action (etc) Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  5. Overlap between language and music “Within our minds are two systems that perform remarkably similar interpretive feats, converting complex acoustic sequences into perceptually discrete elements (such as words or chords) organized into hierarchical structures that convey rich meanings” Patel (2008) Music, Language and the Brain Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  6. Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  7. Speech music Slides from Chris Darwin’s course (Perception of Musical Sounds) Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  8. So what if there’s a crossover between language and music? Some areas are more studied in one domain than the other (e.g. Grammar in language) Other areas are studied from different perspectives (e.g. Meaning) What happens if we take research from one domain – LANGUAGE – and apply it to the other – MUSIC? Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  9. A starting point: Haiku Haiku generation program (Masterman (1971) in Boden 1990) [1][2] in the [3] I [4] [5] [6] in the [7] [8] the [9] has [10] Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  10. Haiku Which was generated by a computer? Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  11. Music’s equivalent to Haiku:Mozart’s Dice Music Musical fragments put together at random (by rolling dice) Demo… http://sunsite.univie.ac.at/Mozart/dice/collaborate.cgi?tables=yes Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  12. Haikus and Dice Music • Are these programs being creative? • Do they model human creativity? At all? Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  13. Saxophone meets computer Paul Hodgson’s IMPROVISOR A computer program that can mimic musical style and improvise in real time 1998: On BBC’s Tomorrow’s World program, IMPROVISOR jams with Courtney Pine, a famous saxophonist [review] (IMPROVISOR plays in the style of Charlie Parker: bebop jazz) Courtney Pine Charlie Parker Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  14. Saxophone meets computer Q Is IMPROVISOR more creative than the Dice Music program? Q Does IMPROVISOR model human musical creativity more closely than the Dice Music program? Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  15. Creativity through Analysis Chomsky: By studying the structure of language, we can capture this structure (in a grammar) and use that to generate new language Several attempts to capture musical structure: • Lerdahl and Jackendoff 1983 • Steedman 1984 • Jordanous 2006, 2007 (shameless self-plug) • etc Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  16. Cope: Experiments in Musical Intelligence (EMI) Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  17. EMI with Cope Q How much of EMI’s creativity is due to David Cope’s creativity? N.B. EMI compositions are credited to: David Cope with Experiments in Musical Intelligence Q Does EMI act as a model of David Cope’s creativity? Or of human musical creativity in composition? Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  18. What does EMI produce? EMI descriptions and sound files at: http://arts.ucsc.edu/faculty/cope/ Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  19. EMI without Cope? Chris Thornton’s MUSER Still uses analysis of musical pieces to subdivide music into fragments But... Instead of using SPEAC coding and musicology, MUSER uses statistical analysis Demo at: http://www.christhornton.eu/ Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  20. N-gram analysis Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  21. Story-telling James Meehan produced the seminal story‐telling program TALE‐SPIN in 1976 TALE‐SPIN stories describe the plans that a main character makes to achieve a goal TALE-SPIN has been highly influential in the design of later story-telling programs, e.g. Scott Turner’s MINSTREL (1991), Brinsjord & Ferruci’s BRUTUS (2000) Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  22. An example TALE-SPIN story ONCE UPON A TIME GEORGE ANT LIVED NEAR A PATCH OF GROUND. THERE WAS A NEST IN AN ASH TREE. WILMA BIRD LIVED IN THE NEST. THERE WAS SOME WATER IN A RIVER. WILMA KNEW THAT THE WATER WAS IN THE RIVER. GEORGE KNEW THAT THE WATER WAS IN THE RIVER. ONE DAY GEORGE WAS VERY THIRSTY. GEORGE WANTED TO GET NEAR SOME WATER. GEORGE WALKED FROM HIS PATCH OF GROUND ACROSS THE MEADOW THROUGH THE VALLEY TO A RIVER BANK. GEORGE FELL INTO THE WATER. GEORGE WANTED TO GET NEAR THE VALLEY. GEORGE COULDN’T GET NEAR THE VALLEY. GEORGE WANTED TO GET NEAR THE MEADOW. GEORGE COULDN’T GET NEAR THE MEADOW. WILMA WANTED GEORGE TO GET NEAR THE MEADOW. WILMA WANTED TO GET NEAR GEORGE. WILMA GRABBED GEORGE WITH HER CLAW. WILMA TOOK GEORGE FROM THE RIVER THROUGH THE VALLEY TO THE MEADOW. GEORGE WAS DEVOTED TO WILMA. GEORGE OWED EVERYTHING TO WILMA. WILMA LET GO OF GEORGE. GEORGE FELL TO THE MEADOW. THE END. Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  23. Story-telling TALE‐SPIN’s stories can appear simplistic due to the relatively basic natural language generation techniques used at the time. However, the underlying mechanisms involved in generating the story are more complex. TALE‐SPIN has been given knowledge on how to solve various problems. It solves problems using planning techniques. These techniques can incorporate social characteristics and interaction between characters such as X is deceitful or Y likes Z. Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  24. Tale-Spin -> Music-Spin Sadly the original code for TALE‐SPIN has been lost, however a ‘MICRO‐TALE‐SPIN’ version exists, written by Meehan in 1981 My aim is to extend MICRO‐TALE‐SPIN to be able to generate music Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  25. Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  26. What do I hope to achieve with Music-Spin? Write a program that makes music! But more importantly, write a program that makes music by mimicking human cognition Use a cross-disciplinary approach to study musical creativity from a different perspective – hopefully will be able to make more general conclusions Q Do people write music the same way they write stories? Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  27. Summary Music and language cross over in many ways People are creative in their use of both music and language Music and language have often been combined in research (e.g. Patel, Steedman, Lerdahl and Jackendoff, Bernstein, etc etc) Studying musical creativity using linguistic creativity – for a wider perspective on creativity in general Models of Creativity in Language and Music

  28. That’s all,folks Models of Creativity in Language and Music