Index Cards • Name • Email • Where you are from • favorite book • Something interesting about yourself • First political memory
Format of Class • Lecture outline on-line • Not the University of Wisconsin • The Socratic method, aka random terror • Attendance Policy– 2 absences • Last one in, first one asked • I answer all cell phone calls
Readings • Fiorina and Peterson • Miroff, Debating Democracy • Fiorina Culture War? • Handouts • Subscribe to ABC’s The Note • Complete Reading Before Class
Requirements • Two midterms • Research paper • Final exam • I have High Standards • Don’t Plagiarize
Nuts and Bolts • I email early and often • Web page syllabi, lecture notes, study questions, web assignments • Office hours 9:30-12 MW, Th 2-3, or whenever door is open • Don’t be a stranger!
Civic Disengagement of College Freshmen • 28.1% "keeping up to date with political affairs" 17.6% “influencing political structure” • 30.9% "becoming a community leader" was essential or very important • 73.4% "being very well off financially" is essential or very important • 27% "realistically, an individual can do little to bring about changes in our society."
Objectives of Class • Institutional perspective • Critically evaluate government • To help make you better citizens • Introduction to political science as a major
American Political Thought • Consent of governed • Separated Power- Locke • Taxation without representation • Distrust of centralized authority
Strange women lying in ponds distributing swords is no basis for a system of government. Supreme executive power derives from a mandate from the masses, not from some farcical aquatic ceremony.
Articles of Confederation • No executive • Limited powers for Congress • no means of collecting revenue • Each state has one vote • Super-majority required to pass laws • WHY?
The Articles’ Deficiencies • Limited trade among states • Radical Legislatures in PA and RI– paper $$ • Increasing foreign threats • National government was TOO weak
Shay’s Rebellion • Economic recession • Daniel Shay and poor farmers • Local courts and legislature • National government has no troops • Implications?
Constitutional Convention The Scene at the Signing of the Constitution, oil painting (reproduction) by Howard Chandler Christy, 1940
Who were the Framers? • The Framers "did not promote a new form of government to satisfy an abstract political theory. The framers were men of affairs who sought to advance their fortunes and careers as well as the interests of the states."
Challenges facing Framers • create coalition of merchants and planters for new government • promote commerce/protect property • prevent excessive democracy • secure popular support • ensure government was not too strong to threaten individual’s liberties
Two Main Cleavages • Small states versus large states • North versus south on slavery
"Great Compromise" • Virginia Plan • New Jersey plan • Connecticut compromise • The House based on population • Senate treats each state equally
Scavenger Hunt • What did the Constitution say about 3 slavery issues? • What are the exact words the Constitution uses to identify slaves in each of these sections
Why the 3/5ths Compromise? • 5 states in South, 8 in North • Slaves are 30% of population in South • slaves count as 3/5 of a person for the purposes of representation in the House of Representatives • Slave trade and runaway slaves • Indelible stain on the constitution
Constitutional Scavenger Hunt • Where must bills for raising revenue originate? • Of the enumerated powers granted to Congress in Article I, Section 8, how many would you classify as economic/ commercial, political, military, or other? • Can Senate expel Hilary? • The original Constitution explicitly mentions only 1 “Right”. What is it?
Congress • Most Powerful Branch; Article 1 • Selection • Expressed Powers
Legislative Assessment • create coalition of merchants and planters • promote commerce/protect property • prevent excessive democracy • secure popular support
Constitutional Scavenger • What is the standard for removing the president from office? • 8. How is the president chosen? How are electors chosen? • How do presidential powers compare to legislative powers?
Prevent Excessive Democracy • How is the president chosen? How are electors chosen? • What is the constitutional criteria for removing a president from office?
President or Executive Branch • How to elect the presidents • Compromise- Electoral College • States receive number of electoral votes equal to representation in Congress. • if no one gets majorities, House of Representatives gets to choose president, one vote per state.
Powers of President • Article 2, 300 words only • Veto legislation, commander in chief, • power to grant reprieves and pardons, make treaties, appoint ambassadors, public ministers, judges and all other office of US, receive ambassadors • give Congress information of the State of the Union, recommend such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient, adjourn them if proper • take care all laws be faithfully executed • the executive power shall be vested in a President
Analysis • Framers wanted a strong, but not too strong President • Need executive to impart energy to national government make timely decisions • Scared about national mandate
Scavenger Hunt • Does the Constitution give the Supreme Court the power of judicial review?
Judiciary, Article III • President appoints judges with the advice and consent of the Senate • Supreme law of land
Assessment • Strong national government • Ensures ratification with no mention of judicial review
Scavenger Hunt • What do Article I, Section 10, Article VI and Amendment X state about the relationship of the federal government and the states? • Comparison with Articles of Confederation?
Administrative Details • Handouts for Monday • 2 thought questions: • Whose interpretation of the constitution seems most plausible (Roche, Beard, or Diamond)? • What 2 constitutional amendments should we have?
Scavenger Hunt • What does the Constitution or any of its amendments say about income taxes? • What does the Constitution or any of its amendments say about “intoxicating liquors”?
State Constitutions • The legislature may provide for an indem-nification program to peanut farmers for losses incurred as a result of Aspergillums flavus and freeze damage in peanuts. Alabama, 1901. • The people hereby enact limitations on marine net fishing in Florida waters to protect saltwater finfish, shellfish, and other marine animals from unnecessary killing, over fishing and waster. Florida, 1968
Scavenger Hunt • Can a person who has engaged in insurrection or rebellion against the United States be elected as a Senator or Representative in Congress or hold any office in the federal or state government? How is such a disability removed? Any ideas why Congress passed this amendment?
Scavenger Hunt • Which groups or individuals have gained the right to vote via an amendment to the Constitution?
Scavenger Hunt • What section of the Constitution states that “all men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness? • What is the one right mentioned in Constitution?
Ratifying the Constitution • approved by at least nine states • approved at ratifying convention • Not state legislatures or popular vote • Debate between federalists and anti-federalists • Needed the big states
Federalists vs. Anti-federalists • Madison (#10) v. Brutus • Is democracy best served in large or small republics? • Who is likely to be elected? • What is the greatest danger to democracy?
Madison- Federalist 10 • Latent causes of faction are thus sown in the nature of man. • “the most common and durable source of faction has been the various and unequal distribution of property” p. 18 • Pure democracy has no cure for the mischiefs of faction • Incompatible with personal security or the rights of property. P. 20
Madison’s Solution • Republican government to refine and enlarge the public views • Liberty is safest in large (extended) republics • many opinions and interests in large republic makes it harder for a tyrannical majority to form • coalition formed in large republic are more moderate • Liberty is threatened more by public passions and popular factions than by strong government
Brutus’s Reply • In a republic, the manners, sentiments, and interest of the persons should be similar (or else) constant clashing of opinions • In a large republic “the people would be acquainted with very few of their rules, the people at large would know little of their proceedings, and it would be extremely difficult to change them. The consequence will be, they will have no confidence in their legislature, suspect them of ambitious views, be jealous of every measure they adopt, and will not support the laws they pass.”
Anti-federalists • small republic is best • People are animated by a concern for public good • strong national government would be distant from the people
Madison, Federal #51 • Is a large republic enough to prevent tyranny of the majority?
Federalist #51, Madison • Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. If men were angels, no govt would be necessary. If angels were to govern men, neither external nor internal controls on govt would be necessary • In framing a govt which is to be administered by men over men, the great difficulty lies in this: you must first enable the govt to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself.
Separation of Powers • Madison- accumulation of all powers, legislative, executive, and judiciary in the same hands, may justly be pronounced the very definition of tyranny. • Legislature makes laws, executive administers, and judiciary interprets • BUT Separation is not enough.
Checks and Balances • #51, Ambition must be made to counteract ambition. The interest of the man must be connected with the constitutional rights of the place.
Different Bases of Support • House of Representatives= only directly elected officials; every two years • Senate= every six years; are selected by State legislatures until 1913 • President= selected by electoral college; state legislatures; no popular vote • Judiciary= appointed by President, confirmed by Senate. Life-time appointment